Transformation of the West 1450-1750 Major Comparisons at a Glance
A riddle What always runs but never walks, often murmurs but never talks, has a bed but never sleeps, has a mouth but never eats?
Major Movements ReformationAbsolutism Scientific Revolution Enlightenment Centralization of Power applying Logic and Reason Challenges to the Catholicism movement Natural World World of mankind Feudalism weakens Joined by Merchants and issue of usury Triggered by Luther's 95 Theses Challenged view of universe Origins of Women's Right Movement observation/ research Above the legislature Aim to improve society/ government Resulted in many churches: Authority worship styles doctrine Appointment, war making, Patron Tax collection Increased religious choice Inspired by Scientific Rev. Kepler: Elliptical Copernicus-sun Centered Harvey-blood Vesailus-anatomy
Reformation Conflicts German StatesFranceEnglandCatholic Church response Peace of Augsburg provides religious choice 30 Years WarHenry seeks a divorce Civil War: Protestants v. Catholics Individual states choose religion Created Jesuits as disciplined missionaries Huguenots protected Edict of Nantes provides freedom of worship Council of Trent: Reaffirm church doctrine Inquisition and Index: Attack Protestants and Their ideas Big Picture: More religious choice--- more religious toleration Eliminated the Catholic Monarchy
Absolutism EnglandFrancePrussiaRussia Charles I was executed Absolutism replaced With Oliver Cromwell (Lord Protector) James and Charles I claim divine right—conflicts with Parliament Monarchy restored under Limited/constitutional Basis—Glorious Revolution Louis was ideal example Versailles Palace— symbol Of absolutism Home of enlightenment Despots: Frederick William Rebuilds military Peter westernizes Serfdom institutionalized
Enlightenment Philosophers LockeHobbesRousseauMontesquieuVoltaire Direct Democracy Born with reason Absolutism, but opposed divine right Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances Blank Mind Born good, corrupted by society Govt. one duty is to protect identified Natural Rights People are born evil Freedom of Speech, Press, religion Govt. one duty is to preserve rights Republic