Presentation on theme: "VIRGINIA AND REBELLION Settling the New Colonies."— Presentation transcript:
VIRGINIA AND REBELLION Settling the New Colonies
Unit 1, Journal #3 When watching, determine the GOALS of the following: John Smith Pocahontas Governor Ratcliffe What about these distinct goals created many of the problems that the Jamestown settlers encountered?
Survival For Jamestown to survive, many unstable conditions had to be overcome. A clash of cultures existed between the Englishmen and the Native Americans with whom they soon found to need to trade as well as to Christianize. Settlers were unprepared for the rugged frontier life in a wilderness. Many settlers intended to remain in Virginia only long enough to make their fortune and then return home to England. WHAT NEEDED TO BE CHANGED? HOW COULD THEY ACCOMPLISH THESE GOALS?
Fast Forward: 1619 We know that the Jamestown settlers arrived in 1607 and faced many severe hardships, yet somehow survived. By the year 1619, many things were about to change. These changes were the foundation for why Jamestown turned their failures into successes.
What was missing? If you recall, the early settlers of Jamestown were all male. “...it was thought that women had no place in the grim and often grisly business of subduing a continent...” The omission of women in the first group of settlers was due to the fact that they were not yet “necessary.”
WOMEN AND CHILDREN Providing the stability needed for Jamestown's survival was the indispensable role played by Virginia women. Lord Bacon stated in 1620 that, "When a plantation grows to strength, then it is time to plant with women as well as with men; that the plantation may spread into generations, and not be ever pieced from without.“ Women indeed would provide these generations. The bachelors in Jamestown would be held down to the soil of Virginia because women would be a stabilizing factor. Women helped the settlers see Virginia not just as a temporary place for profit or adventure, but as a country in which to forge a new home.
WOMEN AND CHILDREN When women arrived in Jamestown, they also helped create the "Peace of Pocahontas," which for several years, appeased the clash between the two cultures. Pocahontas was introduced to English culture and was married to Captain John Rolfe as a formal connection between the Powhatan and the settlers.
What was missing? The tobacco crop, or cash crop, of the growing settlement in Jamestown would not be successful without hard work. This hard work required labor workers. 1) Englishmen Englishmen who came to Virginia came here via the headright system and indentured servitude Headright System: Each new arrival received 50 acres and another 50 acres for each family who migrated Indentured Servitude: Pay for voyage to America, food and shelter, must pledge 4-7 years of servitude. 2) Africans WHY WOULD AFRICANS BE PREFERRED?
AFRICANS As early as 1619, Africans were being brought onto American soil… At Point Comfort, these men and women were traded for provisions and became part of the work force at Jamestown. Because tobacco farming required much labor, the Africans were a useful addition to the colony as they made possible the expansion of the tobacco economy. It is not clear whether they were treated as servants or slaves upon their arrival at Jamestown. Less slaves, more servants. However, they were in a condition of forced servitude in which the English extracted their labor and demanded their absolute obedience.
GOVERNMENT Recall “Lawes Divine, Morall, and Martiall…” Because the Virginia Company was concerned that the colony’s severe martial code would discourage people from immigrating and investing, it instructed the governor to introduce “just laws for the happy guiding and governing of the people.” Two new councils were created: A council of state, whose members were selected by the Virginia Company of London, to assist the governor in his duties, and A “generall Assemblie” that included the Council and two “Burgesses” from every town and particular plantation, “Chosen by the [free] inhabitants.”
GOVERNMENT This new political structure reduced the power of the governor, who previously had been appointed for life and who had the option to appoint or replace members of the council at will. Under the new rules, Council decisions were made by majority vote. The General Assembly was to be the voice of the people of Virginia, providing a check on the power of the governor and council. What can this political structure tell us about the colonies?
GOVERNMENT Thus began the first representative government in the European colonies. It had set a pattern for political life in Virginia that endured long after it was instituted. The idea of a system of checks and balances was later embodied in the United States Constitution.
THINK - PAIR - SHARE Does our government cater to a certain class of people? If so, who and why? Are you a part of this group or not? If not, how does our government successfully balance class differences?
Splitting Virginia By ¼ of free white men were former indentured servants Had little money to purchase land Could not vote, had almost no colonial rights Lived on the Western outskirts, left open to Native American attack
Splitting Virginia Bloody clash between settlers and Native Americans Upper white class landowners vs. lower class Settlers begged Virginia governor for militia support Governor Berkeley supported the wealthy class and refused to finance a war for poor frontier settlers Berkeley was not opposed to fighting Indians who were considered enemies, but attacking friendly Indians, he thought, could lead to what everyone wanted to avoid: a war with "all the Indians against us."
Bacon’s Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon gets very angry "[We must defend ourselves] against all Indians in generall, for that they were all Enemies." Raised his own army in 1676 to fight the natives on the Western frontier They marched to a fort held by a friendly tribe, the Occaneechees, and convinced them to capture warriors from an unfriendly tribe. The Occaneechees returned with captives. Bacon's men killed the captives; they then turned to their "allies" and opened fire. Berkeley declared Bacon a rebel and charged him with treason. Bacon marches to Jamestown to confront leaders about many grievances.
Bacon’s Rebellion Grievances: Lack of representation in House of Burgesses Lack of support from militia Disparity between treatment of classes March turned violent Set fire to the town Governor Berkeley fled Bacon dies, Berkeley returns to Jamestown to stop the rebellion
Bacon’s Rebellion Why is Bacon’s Rebellion a success despite its’ failure? 1. Exposed Virginia to the growing power of the former indentured servants 2. First battle over misrepresentation/taxation 3. Rebellion is possible 4. Spurred planter class to retake the power of the colony 5. Demonstrated that poor whites and poor blacks could be united in a cause.
Exit Slip How will the history of Jamestown and the settlement of Virginia “pave the way” for future endeavors? (Foreshadowing!) Think about: Hardships and struggles Government Expectations Class Struggles
Activity Get into groups for 15 minutes and prepare to quickly present a 3 minute skit based on the slip of paper you receive from me.