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Breathing and Speech Production SPPA 4030 Speech Science.

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1 Breathing and Speech Production SPPA 4030 Speech Science

2 Learning Objectives Possess a basic knowledge of respiratory anatomy sufficient to understand basic respiratory physiology and its relation to speech sound generation. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

3 Respiratory System Components SPPA 4030 Speech Science

4 Structure and Mechanics of Respiratory System Pulmonary system – Lungs and airways Upper respiratory system Lower respiratory system Chest wall system – Necessary for normal vegetative and speech breathing SPPA 4030 Speech Science

5 Chest wall system Rib cage wall Abdominal wall Diaphragm Abdominal contents SPPA 4030 Speech Science

6 Chest wall-Lung relation Lungs not physically attached to the thoracic walls Lungs: visceral pleura Thoracic wall: parietal pleura Filled with Pleural fluid P pleural < P atm - “pleural linkage” allows the lungs to move with the thoracic wall Breaking pleural linkage P pleural = P atm - pneumothorax SPPA 4030 Speech Science

7 Thorax SPPA 4030 Speech Science

8 Abdomen SPPA 4030 Speech Science

9 Diaphragm SPPA 4030 Speech Science

10 Respiratory muscles Diaphragm External intercostals Internal intercostals (interosseus & intercartilaginous) Costal elevators Serratus posterior superior Serratus posterior inferior Sternocleidomastoid Scalenes Trapezius Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Serratus anterior Transverse throacis Rectus abdominis External obliques Internal obliques Transversus abdominis Quadratus lumborum SPPA 4030 Speech Science

11 Learning Objectives Describe how physical laws help explain how air is moved in and out of the body. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

12 Moving Air  V t =  P alv P alv < P atm (- P alv ) P differential = density differential  air molecules flowing into lungs = inspiration  V t =  P alv P alv > P atmos (+ P alv ) P differential = density differential  air molecules flow out of lungs = expiration Patm: atmospheric pressure Palv: alveolar pressure Vt: thoracic volume P = k/V: Boyle’s Law SPPA 4030 Speech Science

13 Changing thoracic volume (V t ) Strategies ∆ Length ∆ Circumference SPPA 4030 Speech Science

14 Changing lung volume (  V lung ) pleural linkage:  V lung =  V thoracic  V thoracic is – raising/lowering the ribs (circumference) Raising:  V thoracic = inspiration Lowering:  V thoracic =expiration – Raising/lowering the diaphragm (vertical dimension) Raising:  V thoracic =expiration Lowering:  V thoracic =inspiration SPPA 4030 Speech Science

15 Biomechanics of the chest wall SPPA 4030 Speech Science

16 Learning Objectives Contrast the goals of non-speech breathing and speech breathing. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

17 “Goals” of Breathing Non-speech (e.g. rest) Breathing – Ventilation Requires exchanging volumes of air Speech Breathing – Ventilation Requires exchanging volumes of air – Communication Requires regulating alveolar pressure on expiration SPPA 4030 Speech Science

18 Learning Objectives Outline the output variables associated with breathing. Briefly describe the methods used to measure lung volume change. Describe the functional subdivisions of the lung volume space. Be aware of the lungs volumes required for various respiratory activities. Differentiate speech and rest breathing in terms of volume measures. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

19 Output Variables: Volume “Wet” Spirometer – Volume measured directly SPPA 4030 Speech Science

20 Output Variables: Volume Pneumotachograph – Sometimes called “dry” spirometry – Vented mask the covers mouth and nose – Airflow signal is then integrated to determine volume SPPA 4030 Speech Science

21 Output Variables: Volume (REL) SPPA 4030 Speech Science

22 Lung Volume Terminology Tidal Volume (TV) – Volume of air inspired/expired during rest breathing. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) – Volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled, “below” tidal volume. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) – Volume of air that can be inhaled, “above” tidal volume. Residual Volume (RV) – Volume of air left after maximal expiration. Measurable, but not easily so. Total Lung Capacity (TLC) – Volume of air enclosed in the respiratory system (i.e. TLC=RV+ERV+TV+IRV) Inspiratory capacity (IC) – TV + IRV Vital Capacity (VC) – Volume of air that can be inhaled/exhaled (i.e. VC=IRV +TV+ERV) Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) – Volume of air in the respiratory system at the REL (i.e. FRC=RV+ERV) Resting Expiratory End Level/Resting Lung Volume (REL or RLV) – Place in lung volume space where resting tidal volume typically ends SPPA 4030 Speech Science

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24 Output Variables: Volume Typical Volume Values Vital Capacity: 4-5 liters Total Lung Capacity: 5-6 liters REL: 40 % VC (upright) Rest Breathing Tidal Volume: ~ 10 % VC Insp/Exp Timing: ~50:50 Respiratory Rate: breaths/minute Speech Breathing Tidal Volume: % VC Insp/Exp Timing: ~10:90 Respiratory Rate: variable Rest Breathing vs. Speech Breathing SPPA 4030 Speech Science

25 Learning Objectives Briefly describe the methods used to measure/infer alveolar pressure. Contrast speech and rest breathing in terms of alveolar pressure. Be aware of the alveolar pressure required for various respiratory activities. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

26 Output Variables: Pressure Termed Manometry pressure transducers may be placed at various locations in the body – Mouth – Trachea – Thoracic esophagus – Abdominal esophagus SPPA 4030 Speech Science

27 Quantifying aerodynamic Pressure SPPA 4030 Speech Science

28 Output Variables: Pressure Typical Values Resting Tidal Breathing Palv: +/- 1-2 cm H20 Speech Breathing Palv: cm H20 during expiration SPPA 4030 Speech Science

29 Learning Objectives Briefly describe methods used to measure changes in chest wall shape. Be aware of the factors that influence changes in chest wall shape. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

30 Output Variables: Shape Rib cage wall and abdominal walls are free to move Changing either can influence lung volume A wide variety of chest wall configurations are possible. Configurations appear to be a function of biomechanical and task-based factors. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

31 Output Variables: Shape SPPA 4030 Speech Science

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33 Output Variables: Shape SPPA 4030 Speech Science

34 Volume, pressure and Shape Changed during speech breathing SPPA 4030 Speech Science

35 Learning Objectives Describe the elasticity of the respiratory system and its relation to REL. Apply the bellows analogy to the respiratory system. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

36 Respiratory System Mechanics It is spring-like (elastic) Elastic systems have an equilibrium point (rest position) What happens when you displace it from equilibrium? SPPA 4030 Speech Science

37 equilibrium Longer than equilibrium Displacement away from equilibrium Restoring force back to equilibrium SPPA 4030 Speech Science

38 equilibrium Shorter than equilibrium Displacement away from equilibrium Restoring force back to equilibrium SPPA 4030 Speech Science

39 equilibrium Shorter than equilibrium Longer than equilibrium Displacement away from equilibrium Restoring force back to equilibrium SPPA 4030 Speech Science

40 Equilibrium point ~ REL SPPA 4030 Speech Science

41 REL Lung Volume Below REL Lung Volume Above REL Displacement away from REL Restoring force back to REL SPPA 4030 Speech Science

42 Is the respiratory system heavily or lightly damped? SPPA 4030 Speech Science

43 Respiratory Mechanics: Bellow’s Analogy Bellows volume = lung volume Handles = respiratory muscles Spring = elasticity of the respiratory system – recoil or relaxation pressure SPPA 4030 Speech Science

44 No pushing or pulling on the handles ~ no exp. or insp. muscle activity Volume ~ REL P atmos = P alv, no airflow SPPA 4030 Speech Science

45 At REL muscle force elastic force pull handles outward from rest V increases ~ P alv decreases Inward air flow INSPIRATION SPPA 4030 Speech Science

46 muscle force elastic force push handles inward from rest V decreases ~ P alv increases outward air flow EXPIRATION At REL SPPA 4030 Speech Science

47 Respiratory Mechanics: Bellow’s Analogy Forces acting on the bellows/lungs are due to Elastic properties of the system – Passive – Always present Muscle activity – Active – Under nervous system control (automatic or voluntary) SPPA 4030 Speech Science

48 Learning Objectives Use the modified pressure-relaxation curve to explain the active and passive forces involved in controlling the respiratory system. Provide muscular solutions for producing target alveolar pressures at various regions of the lung volume space. Differentiate between volume and pulsatile demands during speech breathing. Outline the differences in the muscular strategies used for rest and speech breathing. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

49 Forces due to elasticity of system (no active muscle activity) Recoil forces are proportionate to the amount of displacement from rest Recoil forces ~ P alv Relaxation pressure curve – Plots P alv due to recoil force against lung volume SPPA 4030 Speech Science

50 Traditional Relaxation Pressure Curve Hixon, Weismer & Hoit SPPA 4030 Speech Science

51 Relaxation Pressure Curve (Our modified version) SPPA 4030 Speech Science

52 % Vital Capacity Alveolar Pressure (cm H 2 0) relaxation pressure REL SPPA 4030 Speech Science

53 Breathing for Life: Inspiration pulling handles outward with net inspiratory muscle activity SPPA 4030 Speech Science

54 Breathing for Life: Expiration No muscle activity Recoil forces alone returns volume to REL SPPA 4030 Speech Science

55 % Vital Capacity Alveolar Pressure (cm H 2 0) relaxation pressure 10 % ~ 2 cm Breathing for Life SPPA 4030 Speech Science

56 Respiratory demands of speech Conversational speech requires – “constant” tracheal pressure for driving vocal fold oscillation – brief, “pulsatile” changes in pressure to meet particular linguistic demands emphatic and syllabic stress phonetic requirements SPPA 4030 Speech Science

57 Respiratory demands of speech Conversational speech – Volume solution Constant tracheal pressure 8-10 cm H 2 0 – Pulsatile solution Brief increases above/below constant tracheal pressure Driving analogy – Volume solution Maintain a relatively constant speed – Pulsatile solution Brief increases/decreases in speed due to moment to moment traffic conditions SPPA 4030 Speech Science

58 Breathing for Speech: Inspiration pulling handles outward with net inspiratory muscle activity Rate of volume change is greater than rest breathing SPPA 4030 Speech Science

59 % Vital Capacity Alveolar Pressure (cm H 2 0) relaxation pressure 20 % ~ 8-10 cm Breathing for Speech SPPA 4030 Speech Science

60 % Vital Capacity Alveolar Pressure (cm H 2 0) relaxation pressure 20 % ~ 8-10 cm Breathing for Speech SPPA 4030 Speech Science

61 Breathing for Speech: Expiration Expiratory muscle activity & recoil forces returns volume to REL Pressure is net effect of expiratory muscles (assisting) and recoil forces (assisting) SPPA 4030 Speech Science

62 % Vital Capacity Alveolar Pressure (cm H 2 0) % VC change Target P alv ~ 8-10 cm Optimal region P relax > 0 assists P alv Add P exp to Meet P sg P relax : relaxation pressure P alv : target alveolar pressure P exp : net expiratory muscle pressure P insp : net inspiratory muscle pressure Below REL P relax < 0 opposes P alv Add P exp to meet P alv & overcome P relax P relax > P alv Requires “braking” Add P insp to Meet P alv

63 Summary to this point Muscle activity for Inhalation Life – Active inspiration to overcome elastic recoil Speech – Active inspiration to overcome elastic recoil – Greater lung volume excursion Longer and greater amount of muscle activity – Rate of lung volume change greater Greater amount of muscle activity SPPA 4030 Speech Science

64 Summary to this point Muscle activity for exhalation Life – Minimal active expiration (i.e. no muscle activity) – Elastic recoil force only Speech – Active use of expiratory muscles to maintain airway pressures necessary for speech (8-10 cm water) – Degree of muscle activity must increase to offset reductions in relaxation pressure SPPA 4030 Speech Science

65 Learning Objectives Explain how the respiratory system is “tuned” for speech breathing. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

66 Speech breathing demands a ‘well- tuned’ respiratory system Brief, robust expiratory muscle activity Chest wall must be ‘optimized’ so that rapid changes can be made Optimal environment created by active muscle activity This is our ‘modern’ view of speech breathing SPPA 4030 Speech Science

67 History of Speech Breathing Studies “Classic” studies of speech breathing – University of Edinburgh – Draper, Ladefoged & Witteridge (1959, 1960) “Modern” studies of speech breathing – Harvard University – Hixon, Goldman and Mead (1973) – Hixon, Mead and Goldman (1976) SPPA 4030 Speech Science

68 How do we tune our system? Abdominal wall is active throughout the speech breath cycle –even during inspiration! Why?? Speculations include – Stretches diaphragm and rib cage muscle to a more optimal length-tension region, which increases ability for rapid contraction to meet pulsatile demands. – During expiration, a strong abdominal platform prevents energy being ‘absorbed’ by the abdominal contents. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

69 Optimizing the chest wall SPPA 4030 Speech Science

70 Muscle Activity Rib Cage Wall (inspiratory) Rib Cage Wall (expiratory) Abdominal Wall SPPA 4030 Speech Science

71 So what? Suggests speech breathing is more ‘active’ than originally thought Passive pressures (recoil forces) of the system is heavily exploited in life breathing speech breathing requires an efficient pressure regulator and therefore relies less on passive pressures SPPA 4030 Speech Science

72 Summary: Muscle activity Inspiration Life Active inspiratory muscles Speech COACTIVATION OF – inspiratory muscles – expiratory muscles (specifically abdominal) INS > EXP = net inspiration System ‘tuned’ for quick inhalation Expiration Life No active expiration (i.e. no muscle activity) Speech Active use of rib cage expiratory muscles Active use of abdominal expiratory muscles System “Tuned” for quick brief changes in pressure to meet linguistic demands of speech SPPA 4030 Speech Science

73 Learning Objectives Describe how body position can affect speech breathing patterns. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

74 Role of Position on Breathing SPPA 4030 Speech Science

75 Role of Position on Breathing SPPA 4030 Speech Science

76 Role of Position on Breathing Sustained Vowel Upright Position Sustained Vowel Supine Position

77 Learning Objectives Describe how various respiratory impairments can lead to diminished speech production abilities. SPPA 4030 Speech Science

78 Clinical considerations Parkinson’s Disease Cerebellar Disease Spinal cord Injury Mechanical Ventilation SPPA 4030 Speech Science

79 Parkinson’s Disease (PD) Rigidity, hypo (small) & brady (slow) kinesia Speech breathing features  muscular rigidity   stiffness of rib cage  abdominal involvement relative to rib cage  ability to generate P trach  modulation P trach Speech is soft and monotonous SPPA 4030 Speech Science

80 Cerebellar Disease dyscoordination, inappropriate scaling and timing of movements Speech breathing features Chest wall movements w/o changes in LV (paradoxical movements)  fine control of P trach Abnormal start and end LV (below REL) speech has a robotic quality SPPA 4030 Speech Science

81 Spinal cord injury Remember those spinal nerves… Paralysis of many muscles of respiration Speech breathing features variable depending on specific damage  abdominal size during speech  control during expiration resulting in difficulty generating consistent P trach and modulating P trach Treatment: Support the abdomen (truss) SPPA 4030 Speech Science

82 Mechanical Ventilation Breaths are provided by a machine Speech breathing features  control over all aspects of breath support Length of inspiratory/expiratory phase Large, but inconsistent P trach Inspiration at linguistically inappropriate places Speech breathing often occurs on inspiration Treatment: “speaking valves”, ventilator adjustment, behavioral training SPPA 4030 Speech Science

83 Other disorders that may affect speech breathing Voice disorders Hearing impairment Fluency disorders Motoneuron disease (ALS) SPPA 4030 Speech Science


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