Presentation on theme: "Greek Drama Dithyrambs: 1.sung by a Greek chorus of up to 50 men or boys dancing in circular formation 2.would normally relate some incident in the life."— Presentation transcript:
Greek Drama Dithyrambs: 1.sung by a Greek chorus of up to 50 men or boys dancing in circular formation 2.would normally relate some incident in the life of Dionysus 3.leader of the chorus later became the solo protagonist, with lyrical interchanges taking place between him and the rest of the chorus
Greek Drama Dithyrambs: 4.Competitions between groups singing dithyrambs were an important part of festivals such as the Dionysia 5.Each tribe would enter two choruses, one of men and one of boys, each under the leadership of a choragos 6.successful choregos would receive a statue which would be erected - at his own expense - on a public monument to commemorate his group's victory.
Thespis: 1.singer of dithyrambs 2.introduced a new style in which one singer performed the words of individual characters in the stories 3.became different characters with different masks
Early Greek playwrights wrote tragedies: 1.Stories of the gods and heroes used to explore human problems 2.Universe was governed by fate or destiny 3.Fate interacted with the ability of humans to make decisions which would bring them either greatness or disaster
Greek Drama Characteristics of Greek tragedy: 1.Little action presented on stage 2.Plot already familiar to the audience 3.Little character development, instead types 4.Centered on the conflict between the individual and the universe and not other personalities
Greek Drama Characteristics of Greek tragedy: 5.Tragic fate brought on by someone committing a crime against society or the gods thereby upsetting the balance of the universe 6.Punishment came in order to balance the scale of justice
Greek Drama Purpose of Greek tragedy was to purify the emotions of the audience by representing the triumph of justice.
Greek Drama Actors: 1.hired and paid by the state and assigned to the tragic poets 2.three actors were required for the performance of a tragedy the protagonist “first actor” the deuteragonist “second actor” the tritagonist “third actor”
Greek Drama Actors: 3.protagonist took the role of the most important character in the play while the other two actors played the lesser roles 4.since most plays have more than two or three characters (although never more than three speaking actors in the same scene), all three actors played multiple roles
Greek Drama Actors: 5.male actors had to play female roles 6. playing of multiple roles, both male and female, was made possible by the use of masks 7. masks with subtle variations also helped the audience identify the sex, age, and social rank of the characters 8. main duties of an actor were to speak the dialogue assigned to his characters and to sing songs solo or with the chorus or with other actors
Chorus: 1.tragedy was not just straight drama—included songs sung both by actors and chorus and also with dancing by the chorus 2.the chorus were non-professionals who had a talent for singing and dancing and were trained by the poet in preparation for the performance 3.standard number of members of a chorus was twelve 4.chorus, like the actors, wore costumes and masks
Greek Drama Chorus: 5.first function of a tragic chorus was to chant an entrance song called a parodos as they marched into the orchestra 6.once the chorus had taken its position in the orchestra, it had two duties: dialogue with characters through its leader, the Coryphaeus, most important function was to sing and dance choral songs called stasima
Greek Drama Tragedy structure : 1.scenes of dialogue alternate with choral songs--allows the chorus to comment in song on what has been said and/or done in the preceding scene 2.most tragedies begin with an opening scene of expository dialogue or monologue called a prologue 3.after the prologue the chorus marches into the orchestra chanting the parodos
Greek Drama Tragedy structure : 4.a scene of dialogue called an episode, which in turn is followed by the first stasimon 5.alternation of episode and stasimon continues until the last stasimon 6. there is a final scene of dialogue called an exodos “exit scene”
Greek Drama Structure of a typical tragedy: Prologue Parodos First Episode First Stasimon Second Episode Second Stasimon Third Episode Third Stasimon Fourth Episode Fourth Stasimon Exodos
Greek Drama Producing for the city Dionysia festival: 1.Decide what plays you want to stage. 2.Submit your proposal to the archon eponymos. 3.Wait for the archon to select the choregos who will fund your play, and your star actor. 4.Finish writing the plays.
Greek Drama Producing for the city Dionysia festival: 5.Write the music and attend to many other details. 6.Make sure the choregos attends to his duties. 7.Rehearse, rehearse, rewrite, rehearse, rehearse. 8.Wait for the process of selecting the judges to take place. 9.Attend the proagon.
Greek Drama Producing for the city Dionysia festival: 10.The Festival of the Greater Dionysia arrives. 11. Attend the events which take place just before the plays are presented. 12.The plays are presented. 13.The judging takes place. 14.Go to the cast party, and begin thinking about next year.
Greek Drama Aeschylus: First of the tragedy playwrights Guilt and punishment were themes Best known works: Prometheus Bound and The Oresteia 13 time winner of City Dionysia
Greek Drama Sophocles: Greatest of the tragedy playwrights Themes: 1.Ideal of nothing too much 2.Love or harmony and peace 3.Intelligent respect for democracy 4.Sympathy for human weakness Best known works: Antigone and Oedipus Rex 24 time winner of City Dionysia
Greek Drama Euripides: Developed a different style of tragedy Ridiculed ancient myths Humbled the proud, exalted the low First to give ordinary man a place in Greek drama Portrayed men as they were Introduced love as a theme Best known works: Alcestis, Media, and Trojan Women 5 time winner of City Dionysia
Greek Drama Aristophanes: Introduced comedy-developed from politics and current events Wrote about Athenian politicians, generals, philosophers, and other playwrights Best known works: The Knights, The Frogs, and The Clouds