Presentation on theme: "Greek Drama Dithyrambs:"— Presentation transcript:
1Greek Drama Dithyrambs: sung by a Greek chorus of up to 50 men or boys dancing in circular formationwould normally relate some incident in the life of Dionysusleader of the chorus later became the solo protagonist, with lyrical interchanges taking place between him and the rest of the chorus
2Greek Drama Dithyrambs: Competitions between groups singing dithyrambs were an important part of festivals such as the DionysiaEach tribe would enter two choruses, one of men and one of boys, each under the leadership of a choragossuccessful choregos would receive a statue which would be erected - at his own expense - on a public monument to commemorate his group's victory.
6Greek Drama Early Greek playwrights wrote tragedies: Stories of the gods and heroes used to explore human problemsUniverse was governed by fate or destinyFate interacted with the ability of humans to make decisions which would bring them either greatness or disaster
7Greek Drama Characteristics of Greek tragedy: Little action presented on stagePlot already familiar to the audienceLittle character development, instead typesCentered on the conflict between the individual and the universe and not other personalities
8Greek Drama Characteristics of Greek tragedy: Tragic fate brought on by someone committing a crime against society or the gods thereby upsetting the balance of the universePunishment came in order to balance the scale of justice
9Greek DramaPurpose of Greek tragedy was to purify the emotions of the audience by representing the triumph of justice.
10Greek DramaActors:hired and paid by the state and assigned to the tragic poetsthree actors were required for the performance of a tragedythe protagonist “first actor”the deuteragonist “second actor”the tritagonist “third actor”
11Greek DramaActors:protagonist took the role of the most important character in the play while the other two actors played the lesser rolessince most plays have more than two or three characters (although never more than three speaking actors in the same scene), all three actors played multiple roles
12Greek Drama Actors: male actors had to play female roles playing of multiple roles, both male and female, wasmade possible by the use of masksmasks with subtle variations also helped the audienceidentify the sex, age, and social rank of the charactersmain duties of an actor were to speak the dialogue assignedto his characters and to sing songs solo or with the chorus orwith other actors
14Greek DramaChorus:tragedy was not just straight drama—included songs sung both by actors and chorus and also with dancing by the chorusthe chorus were non-professionals who had a talent for singing and dancing and were trained by the poet in preparation for the performancestandard number of members of a chorus was twelvechorus, like the actors, wore costumes and masks
15Greek DramaChorus:first function of a tragic chorus was to chant an entrance song called a parodos as they marched into the orchestraonce the chorus had taken its position in the orchestra, it had two duties:dialogue with characters through its leader, the Coryphaeus,most important function was to sing and dance choral songs called stasima
16Greek Drama Tragedy structure : scenes of dialogue alternate with choral songs--allows the chorus to comment in song on what has been said and/or done in the preceding scenemost tragedies begin with an opening scene of expository dialogue or monologue called a prologueafter the prologue the chorus marches into the orchestra chanting the parodos
17Greek Drama Tragedy structure : a scene of dialogue called an episode, which in turn is followed by the first stasimonalternation of episode and stasimon continues until the last stasimonthere is a final scene of dialogue called an exodos “exit scene”
18Greek Drama Structure of a typical tragedy: Prologue Parodos First EpisodeFirst StasimonSecond EpisodeSecond StasimonThird EpisodeThird StasimonFourth EpisodeFourth StasimonExodos
19Greek Drama Producing for the city Dionysia festival: Decide what plays you want to stage.Submit your proposal to the archon eponymos.Wait for the archon to select the choregos who will fund your play, and your star actor.Finish writing the plays.
20Greek Drama Producing for the city Dionysia festival: Write the music and attend to many other details.Make sure the choregos attends to his duties.Rehearse, rehearse, rewrite, rehearse, rehearse.Wait for the process of selecting the judges to take place.Attend the proagon.
21Greek Drama Producing for the city Dionysia festival: The Festival of the Greater Dionysia arrives.Attend the events which take place just before the plays are presented.The plays are presented.The judging takes place.Go to the cast party, and begin thinking about next year.
32Greek Drama Aeschylus: First of the tragedy playwrights Guilt and punishment were themesBest known works: Prometheus Bound and The Oresteia13 time winner of City Dionysia
33Greek Drama Sophocles: Greatest of the tragedy playwrights Themes: Ideal of nothing too muchLove or harmony and peaceIntelligent respect for democracySympathy for human weaknessBest known works:Antigone and Oedipus Rex24 time winner of City Dionysia
34Greek Drama Euripides: Developed a different style of tragedy Ridiculed ancient mythsHumbled the proud, exalted the lowFirst to give ordinary man a place in Greek dramaPortrayed men as they wereIntroduced love as a themeBest known works:Alcestis, Media, and Trojan Women5 time winner of City Dionysia
35Greek Drama Aristophanes: Introduced comedy-developed from politics and current eventsWrote about Athenian politicians, generals, philosophers, and other playwrightsBest known works:The Knights, The Frogs, and The Clouds