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GREEK THEATRE THE BIRTHPLACE OF WESTERN DRAMA. FESTIVALS OF DIONYSUS F In honor of the god of Wine and Fertility F Myths relate to seasonal growing cycles.

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Presentation on theme: "GREEK THEATRE THE BIRTHPLACE OF WESTERN DRAMA. FESTIVALS OF DIONYSUS F In honor of the god of Wine and Fertility F Myths relate to seasonal growing cycles."— Presentation transcript:

1 GREEK THEATRE THE BIRTHPLACE OF WESTERN DRAMA

2 FESTIVALS OF DIONYSUS F In honor of the god of Wine and Fertility F Myths relate to seasonal growing cycles and passions of Man F Purpose of worship was inducement of fertility F 8th-7th Century B.C.--contests of choral dancing held at many festivals ; dithyrambs

3 DITHYRAMB Ecstatic Hymn A RELIGIOUS CHANT OR SONG PERFORMED IN RYTHYM AND WITH DANCING

4 First Definite Record of Drama in Greece: 534 B.C. F City Dionysia (late March) reorganized F Contest for Best Tragedy instituted F Winner of first contest is Thespis, who also acted in the performance F Actors today are known asThespians, in honor of the first known Greek actor.

5 HYPOKRITE GREEK WORD FOR ACTOR, MEANS WEARER OF MASKS

6 CHORAGUS F A wealthy patron, wishing to honor the gods, pays for the cost of a production F Precursor to the Producer

7 GREEK THEATRE STRUCTURES F Amphitheatres F Built onto hillsides F Originally temporary wooden structures, later made of stone F Were considered a form of temple F Some held up to 20,000 spectators

8 Parts of a Greek Theatre F ORKESTRA: circular acting space at center, translates as dancing place F THYMELE: Altar stone at center of orkestra F TEATRON: Spectator seating; seeing place F SKENE: Stage building behind orkestra; where we get the words scene and scenery

9 Parts of a Greek Theatre F PARADOS/PARADOI: entry ramps for the chorus between the Teatron and Skene; where we get the word parade F PERIAKTOI: Three-sided turnable column used as a scenic device, placed in space between columns of skene F MACHINA: Crane-like device used to suspend celestial figures above the action; deus ex machina means god from the machine

10 SKENE F STAGE HOUSE: provides scenic background, a place to change costumes, place to exit F Had one to three doors F May have been raised up off ground level F Developed a second story in later years

11 Side View: Orkestra and Teatron

12 Orkestra with Thymele, Skene

13 Teatron

14 AUDITORIUM The Hearing Place Includes Orkestra and Teatron

15 Seating for the Priests

16 The Head Priests Chair

17 GREEK PLAYWRIGHTS F Only 5 playwrights and 45 plays survive F According to Aristotle, drama developed out of improvisation by the leaders of the dithyrambs F Early plays, such as those by Thespis, were no more than a discourse between one actor (Protagonist) and the chorus. F In later years, playwrights wrote 3 Tragedies and one Satyr Play for the contests at the City Dionysia

18 AESCHYLUS: B.C. F Tragic Playwright, Introduced Second Actor, Deuteragonist F Encouraged face-to-face conflict between characters F reduced importance of chorus, size from 50 F Wrote AGAMEMMNON and PROMETHEUS BOUND

19 SOPHOCLES: B.C. F Considered greatest Greek dramatist, wrote tragedies F Created Third Actor F More concerned with human relationships than religious issues F Wrote OEDIPUS THE KING and ANTIGONE

20 EURIPIDES: B.C. F Last of great Greek Tragic playwrights F Reduced chorus to relatively unimportant role F Treated Gods with lack of awe F Wrote MEDEA and THE TROJAN WOMEN

21 ARISTOPHANES: B.C. F Comic Playwright, Old Comedy, discusses happy idea F Wrote LYSISTRATA, an anti-war comedy

22 MENANDER: B.C. F Comic playwright, New Comedy F More secular-based, often a comedy of manners F Copied by the Romans, more like a sitcom F Wrote ARBITRATION and DYSCOLUS (The Old Grouch)

23 GREEK TRAGEDIES F General pattern developed by Aeschylus F PROLOGOS: establishes dramatic situation F PARODOS: Entrance of Chorus, exposition F EPEISODA: main action, equivalent of an Act F STASIMA: Choral interlude, makes comment on the action in the Epeisoda F Climax occurs in last Epeisoda, so that last Stasima allows final comment by the chorus F EXODOS: Final summation and exit of Chorus


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