Ekkylema movable platform rolled out from behind the scenes to depict events which take place inside the building before which the action occurs.
Poets or Playwrights? BOTH! Greek drama was written in..verse, with poetic meters The meter was based on..short and long syllables, not..stress, as in English Songs were also a crucial..part of drama
Hey! I can barely see you from way up here!
Can you see me NOW?
Actors The 3 actor rule All male Costumes?
SOPHOCLES B.C.E. One of the 3 great tragedians who lived in Athens. The others were Aeschylus and Euripides. The Athenians considered Sophocles to be their most successful playwright. Famous Trilogy: Oedipus the King (Oedipus Rex), Oedipus at Colonus, and Antigone
Tragedy was performed in Athens at the 3 annual festivals in honor of Dionysus New plays were written specifically for these festivals, competitions were held, and prizes awarded. A chorus of men dressed in skins of goats (the sacred animal of the god) sang a song to Dionysus, thus the term tragoedia ("goat-song").
TRAGEDY Hero – Suffers because of a personal flaw (harmatia) Most common flaw is hubris, excessive pride – Experiences strong emotions – Comes to a breaking point – Faces horrible truth (catastrophe) – paripateia: a move from happiness to misery, a reversal Audience experiences relief, but hero does not (catharsis)
HIGH ESTATE The protagonist (the hero) - is a person of "high estate, "apparently a king or queen or other member of a royal family, neither completely virtuous nor utterly villainous. He must be worthy of our interest, concern, or sympathy. An evil or depraved character cannot be a tragic hero.
THE FALL The protagonist must fall from power and from happiness His high estate gives him a place of dignity to fall from and perhaps makes his fall seem all the more a calamity in that it involves an entire nation or people
TRAGIC FLAW The protagonist's downfall is the result of a flaw in his character (weakness), or an error in judgment. Many times the hero brings about his own downfall through the tragic flaw of hubris - excessive pride or arrogance.
REVELATION The protagonist must experience a revelation. He must gain the knowledge that he is responsible for the tragic events (wisdom through suffering). The disaster that befalls the protagonist should be inevitable, either decreed by fate, or the clear outcome of actions engaged in or choices made by him. The protagonist must assert his force and dignity as a man and not take his destruction meekly without battle or protest.
THE CHORUS Usually 15 men (but up to 50) Dressed the same including masks Follow the dramatic action closely, react to it emotionally and comment on it. Gives background, informing audience of preceding events.
FUNCTIONS OF THE CHORUS Chants poetry and dance. Reflect attitudes of citizens in audience Relieves tension Tells about violence The leader of the chorus often acts as spokesman for the group Often converses with and gives advice to the actors.
Structure Prologue: Spoken by one or two characters before the chorus appears. The prologue usually gives the mythological background necessary for understanding the events of the play. Parodos: This is the song sung by the chorus as it first enters the orchestra and dances.
First Episode: This is the first of many "episodes," when the characters and chorus talk. First Stasimon: At the end of each episode, the other characters usually leave the stage and the chorus dances and sings a stasimon, or choral ode. The ode usually reflects on the things said and done in the episodes, and puts it into some kind of larger mythological framework.
For the rest of the play, there is alternation between episodes and stasima, until the final scene, called the... Exodos: At the end of play, the chorus exits singing a processional song which usually offers words of wisdom related to the actions and outcome of the play.