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THE REFORMATION Began in 1517 with the criticisms of Martin Luther of certain practices within the Roman Catholic Church Various groups of former Catholics.

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Presentation on theme: "THE REFORMATION Began in 1517 with the criticisms of Martin Luther of certain practices within the Roman Catholic Church Various groups of former Catholics."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE REFORMATION Began in 1517 with the criticisms of Martin Luther of certain practices within the Roman Catholic Church Various groups of former Catholics would break away from the Church and form their own denominations –Known collectively as Protestants

2 REFORMATION IN ENGLAND Reformation at first seemed to pass England by Situation changed during the reign of Henry VIII –Pulled England out of Catholic Church when pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn –Declared himself head of an independent Church of England and confiscated all property of Catholic Church

3 NATURE OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND England’s break with Rome had not been motivated by religious concerns but by personal and political reasons –Did not entail a basic rejection of Catholic doctrine or church organization –Priests and bishops acknowledged king as their leader (not the pope) but little else changed –Church of England remained Catholic in terms of organization, doctrine, and rituals

4 PURITANS Small but influential group became increasingly critical of the strong Catholic flavor within the Church of England –Began towards the end of the reign of Henry VIII –Known as “puritans” Because they wanted to “purify” the Church of England of all vestiges of Catholicism John Milton, Puritan poet

5 JOHN CALVIN French-born Protestant leader who made his headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland His doctrine, Calvinism, was a harsh, stern, and intolerant brand of Protestantism

6 CALVINISM Calvin’s God was stern, angry, and unforgiving –Saw man has hopelessly corrupt and sinful –Nothing could appease him and nothing could help man achieve salvation

7 PREDESTINATION All people were predestined –God had decided at Creation whether a person would be saved or damned –Nothing that anyone could do to change this fate

8 SALVATION AND BEHAVIOR Although all deserved it, God did not doom all people to damnation –He would notify those he had chosen for salvation through a personal, mystical experience In the meantime, people should prepare themselves for this notification by behaving in such a way as to demonstrate that they are worthy of this divine favor –Read the Bible, attend church, work hard, exercise severe self-discipline Refrain from gambling, play-going, dancing, and wearing fancy clothes

9 CONGREGATIONALISTS Puritans were English Calvinists –Not a separate denomination from Church of England –Belonged to the Church but believed it was impure and purged of all surviving Catholic customs Most Puritans were also Congregationalists –Wanted to get rid of centralized structure of the Church of England –Make each congregation independent –Only wanted people who had been marked for salvation and lived accordingly to be full, voting congregation members The “godly” Congregationalist Church

10 CHARLES I AND PURITANISM English rulers from Henry VIII onward did not like the Puritans and even persecuted them on occasion But during the reigns of James I and especially Charles I, sporadic persecution of leaders changed to a policy of persecution and harassment of all Puritans –Because Charles I was sympathetic to Catholicism and even wanted to make Church of England more, not less, Catholic

11 CIVIL WAR AND EXODUS Pro-Catholic actions by Charles prompted more Puritan criticism and demands for reform –Especially from Puritan members of Parliament In response, Charles dissolved Parliament in 1629 and began to systematically persecute all Puritans –Long term result would be civil war and the execution of Charles (1640s) –Short term result would be massive exodus of Puritans for North America

12 THE PILGRIMS Unrepresentative of Puritan mainstream –Separatists who had left Church of England Persecuted heavily in England so they moved to the Netherlands in 1609 Forced to leave Netherlands in 1619 when war looked likely with England Decided at that point to go to North America

13 THE MAYFLOWER Received financing from friendly English Puritans and bought one ship – the Mayflower. 101 passengers Landed at Cape Cod on November 11, 1620

14 A LITTLE PROTO-DEMOCRACY Because the area where they landed was outside jurisdiction of Virginia, colonists signed a contract and agreed to be governed by majority rule until a permanent colonial government could be established –The Mayflower Compact Elected William Bradford to serve as their first governor

15 FIRST WINTER Named area where they landed Plymouth Arrived weakened by poor food and close confinement just as harsh winter hit –50% died during first winter from starvation, exposure, and, perhaps, suicide –All probably would have died if it had not been for the help provided by Squanto Lonely tribeless Indian Acted as interpreter and go-between with local Indians

16 FIRST THANKSGIVING Pilgrims survived first winter, established small settlement, and began to grow their own food Celebrated first Thanksgiving in mid- October 1621 –Purpose was to thank God, not the Indians, for their survival –Indians were not even invited but showed up anyway and were allowed to participate

17 INDIAN RELATIONS By second Thanksgiving, the severed head of local chief decorated the walls of Plymouth –Pilgrims incapable and unwilling to understand Indian culture Gradually took Indian land and slaughtered them if they tried to resist Local Indian population quickly wiped out –Also by disease

18 PILGRIM LEGACY Pilgrims did manage to establish a viable little colony at Plymouth –Supported by farming, fishing, and fur trading But they refused to have anything to do with outside world –Hostile to education Powerful legend but Plymouth remained a cultural and intellectual backwater and had little impact on the subsequent development of English civilization in North America

19 GREAT MIGRATION Mainstream Puritans who settle Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth during late 1620s and 1630s Over 20,000 moderate Congregationalists who fled persecution in England under Charles I Goal was to set up “city upon a hill” to serve as model that would show English how their “sinful lande” could be transformed and purified

20 MASSACHUSETTS BAY COMPANY In 1628, well-off Puritans bought shares in New England Company –Had authorization to settle and govern area known as Massachusetts Bay, north of Plymouth Company reorganized in 1629 into Massachusetts Bay Company –Puritan shareholders gained majority control of company Thereby gained power to govern themselves in Massachusetts Bay Seal of Massachusetts Bay Company

21 PURITAN SETTLEMENT Shareholders elected John Winthrop as their first governor Winthrop and 1000 other Puritans landed in Massachusetts Bay in 1630 –Within a year they had founded settlements at Boston, Dorchester, Roxbury, Watertown, Cambridge, and Charlestown All parts of metropolitan Boston today Within ten years, 20,000 more Puritans would come over, making Massachusetts Bay the largest English colony in North America John Winthrop

22 RELIGION AND POLITICS Church became foundation of colony –Everyone require to attend church services –Full church membership limited to “saints” People who had passed test and proven they were marked for salvation –Only full church members could participate in politics

23 THE GENERAL COURT Vote granted only to male, adult, full church members –Called “freemen” Originally, all freemen met together four times a year in the “General Court: to make laws –In between meetings, Winthrop and 18 elected assistants managed the colony General Court became too large and cumbersome in time and was transformed into a representative assembly –Two representatives elected from each settlement –Executive branch made up of governor, a deputy, and council of assistants—all elected by freemen in the colony at large

24 THE PURITAN REPUBLIC Puritan republic had problems in early years –Anne Hutchinson –Roger Williams But the colony hung together because colonists agreed on basic issues –Wanted congregational churches –Wanted government that enforced Ten Commandments and supported their “true religion” But, contrary to legend, they never allowed clergymen to hold public office Anne Hutchinson Roger Williams

25 ECONOMY Colony developed thriving economy based on selling supplies to new settlers English Civil War cut off flow of immigrants to colony and plunged it into a depression As a way out, colonists found they could sell fish, grain, and timber to Spain, Portugal, and Caribbean islands –Created solid and diversified economic foundation based on international trade, shipbuilding, and shipping

26 GROWTH OF NEW ENGLAND Population grew rapidly after 1650, reaching 100,000 by the 1690s –Began to spill over into neighboring areas Connecticut (founded by Thomas Hooker) Rhode Island (founded by Roger Williams) Southern New Hampshire –All these new colonies retained the Massachusetts form of government and had diversified economies based on international trade

27 REASONS FOR POPULATION GROWTH Population growth helped by lower death rate than in Virginia –Caused by brisk climate –Safe and abundant drinking water –Strength of family units and evenly balanced gender ration More stable family life and less carousing and drinking –Puritan values

28 CONCLUSION Population growth and economic development eventually undermined the Puritan principles upon which Massachusetts Bay had been founded –Evolved into a secular and materialistic state But some of its traditions would live on to have a massive impact on the future of this new land –Most importantly, the tradition of self- government

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