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Chapter 4, Section Chapter 4 Empires of India and China (600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4, Section Chapter 4 Empires of India and China (600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4, Section Chapter 4 Empires of India and China (600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. World History: Connection to Today

2 Chapter 4, Section Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 : Empires of India and China (600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Section 1: Hinduism and Buddhism Section 2: Powerful Empires of India Section 3: Pillars of Indian Life Section 4: Philosophy and Religion in China Section 5: Strong Rulers Unite China World History: Connection to Today

3 Chapter 4, Section Hinduism and Buddhism In what ways is Hinduism a complex religion? What are the major teachings of the Buddha? How did Buddhism spread beyond India to become a major world religion? 1

4 Chapter 4, Section Hinduism grew out of many varied beliefs of different peoples who settled in India. It has many gods and goddesses and many forms of worship. Despite this diversity, all Hindus share certain basic beliefs: Hinduism All the universe is part of the unchanging, all-powerful spiritual force called brahman. The ultimate goal of existence is to achieve moksha, or union with brahman. To achieve moksha, people must free themselves from selfish desires. One must obey the law of karma. Reincarnation allows people to continue working toward moksha through several lifetimes. 1

5 Chapter 4, Section Life is full of suffering. The only cure for suffering is to follow the Eightfold Path, a middle road between a life devoted to pleasure and a life of harsh self- denial. It is important to live a moral life. Enlightenment is achieved through meditation. The ultimate goal is nirvana, union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth. The Teachings of the Buddha 1

6 Chapter 4, Section Followers accompanied the Buddha as he preached across Northern India. Some Buddhists set up monasteries and convents that grew into centers of learning. Missionaries and traders spread Buddhism across India to many parts of Asia. Spread of Buddhism 1

7 Chapter 4, Section According to Hinduism, one must a)believe in only one god. b) worship according to strict guidelines. c) achieve moksha in this lifetime. d) obey the law of karma. Which of the following do Buddhists believe? a) Enlightenment is achieved through suffering. b) Enlightenment is achieved through meditation. c) Enlightenment is achieved through harsh self- denial. d) Enlightenment is achieved through reincarnation. Section 1 Assessment 1 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.

8 Chapter 4, Section 1 According to Hinduism, one must a)believe in only one god. b) worship according to strict guidelines. c) achieve moksha in this lifetime. d) obey the law of karma. Which of the following do Buddhists believe? a) Enlightenment is achieved through suffering. b) Enlightenment is achieved through meditation. c) Enlightenment is achieved through harsh self- denial. d) Enlightenment is achieved through reincarnation. Section 1 Assessment Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.

9 Chapter 4, Section Powerful Empires of India How did Maurya rulers create a strong central government? What were some major achievements of the kingdoms of the Deccan? Why is the period of Gupta rule in India considered a golden age? 2

10 Chapter 4, Section Empires of India 2

11 Chapter 4, Section Maurya rulers created a strong central government. These rulers The Maurya Empire supervised the building of roads and harbors. collected taxes and managed state-owned factories. created royal courts. created a secret police force to report on corruption, crime, and dissent, or opposing ideas. trained warriors to guard the royal palace. 2

12 Chapter 4, Section Each kingdom had its own capital and magnificent temples. Women enjoyed high status and economic power. Rulers improved harbors to support overseas trade. Deccan writers left a rich and diverse literature. Rulers were tolerant of all religions and foreign settlers. People were Dravidians with different languages and traditions. Merchants traded with the Roman Empire and China. Kingdoms of the Deccan 2

13 Chapter 4, Section The Golden Age of the Guptas Writers collected and recorded fables and folk tales. Kalidasa wrote classical plays. Artists painted murals, or wall paintings and created carvings telling the story of the life of the Buddha. Builders designed magnificent stone temples and dome- shaped shrines called stupas. MATHEMATICS MEDICINE LEARNING Under the Guptas, India enjoyed a period of great cultural achievement. Scholars taught many subjects at Hindu and Buddhist schools. Doctors treated illnesses with herbs, performed surgery, set broken bones, and vaccinated against smallpox. Mathematicians invented system of numbers we use today and developed decimal system and concept of zero. ARCHITECTURE CARVING & PAINTING LITERATURE 2

14 Chapter 4, Section In order to create a strong central government, the Maurya did all of the following except a) create a secret police force. b) create royal courts. c) train warriors to guard the royal palace. d) allow the common people to visit the palace. Which of the following was not an achievement of Gupta physicians? a) vaccinating against smallpox b) setting broken bones c) relieving pain with acupuncture d) treating illnesses with herbs Section 2 Assessment 2 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here,Click Here,

15 Chapter 4, Section 2 Section 2 Assessment In order to create a strong central government, the Maurya did all of the following except a) create a secret police force. b) create royal courts. c) train warriors to guard the royal palace. d) allow the common people to visit the palace. Which of the following was not an achievement of Gupta physicians? a) vaccinating against smallpox b) setting broken bones c) relieving pain with acupuncture d) treating illnesses with herbs Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here,Click Here,

16 Chapter 4, Section Pillars of Indian Life How did the caste system affect Indian life? What values influenced family life? How did the traditional Indian village function economically and politically? 3

17 Chapter 4, Section Caste rules governed every aspect of life–where people lived, what they ate, how they dressed, and what work they did. Life for the lowest ranking caste, the “Untouchables,” was harsh and restricted. People knew that they could not change their status in this life. However, they believed that they could reach a higher state in a future life by fulfilling the duties of their present caste. Each caste had its own leaders and its own occupation, and caste members cooperated to help one another. The Caste System and Daily Life 3

18 Chapter 4, Section Family Life The status and freedom of women decreased over time. A woman’s duties were to marry, obey her husband, and raise children. Parents had a duty to arrange good marriages for their children, based on caste and family interests. Early on, children learned family duties, such as obedience of caste rules. Family wishes came before individual wishes. The family was patriarchal. The father or oldest male had absolute authority. The ideal was the joint family, in which extended family all lived under one roof. 3

19 Chapter 4, Section Village Life Villages were self-sufficient, producing most of the food and goods needed. Sometimes villagers traded at regional markets. Each village ran its own affairs facing little interference as long as it paid its share of taxes. A village headman and council made decisions. ECONOMICS POLITICS 3

20 Chapter 4, Section Caste rules in India a)could be ignored by the higher castes. b)governed every aspect of Indian life. c)only applied to the “Untouchables.” d)were more flexible for women than for men. Which of the following was true about family life? a)Women enjoyed a high degree of freedom. b)Individual interests came before family interests. c)The Indian family was patriarchal. d)Indian teenagers chose their own husbands and wives. Section 3 Assessment 3 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here,Click Here,

21 Chapter 4, Section Caste rules in India a)could be ignored by the higher castes. b)governed every aspect of Indian life. c)only applied to the “Untouchables.” d)were more flexible for women than for men. Which of the following was true about family life? a)Women enjoyed a high degree of freedom. b)Individual interests came before family interests. c)The Indian family was patriarchal. d)Indian teenagers chose their own husbands and wives. Section 3 Assessment 3 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here,Click Here,

22 Chapter 4, Section Philosophy and Religion in China What were the major teachings of Confucius? How did Legalism and Daoism differ in their views on government? Why did many Chinese people accept Buddhist ideas? 4

23 Chapter 4, Section Teachings of Confucius Confucius developed a philosophy, or system of ideas, that was concerned with world goals, especially how to ensure social order and good government. His ideas included: Harmony results when people accept their place in society. Everyone has duties and responsibilities. Filial piety, or respect for parents, is the most important duty. A ruler has the responsibility to provide good government. In return, the people would be respectful and loyal subjects. Government leaders and officials should be well educated. 4

24 Chapter 4, Section Legalism versus Daoism The only way to achieve order is to pass strict laws and impose harsh punishments on lawbreakers. The ruler alone possesses power. Government is unnatural and is the cause of many problems. The best government is the one that governs the least. Legalism and Daoism promoted very different views of government. LEGALISM DAOISM 4

25 Chapter 4, Section Buddhism in China promised an escape from suffering. offered hope of eternal happiness. presented Buddha as a compassionate, merciful god. taught that anyone could gain salvation through prayer, good works, and devotion. Buddhism became popular among the Chinese, especially in times of crisis. It was appealing because it 4

26 Chapter 4, Section Section 4 Assessment Legalists believed that a)the best government is the one that governs the least. b)order is achieved through harsh laws and punishments. c) power should be shared among the people. d)government is the cause of many problems. Which of the following was not a reason that Buddhism appealed to many Chinese? a) It presented the Buddha as a merciful god. b)It offered an easy path to salvation. c) It offered hope of eternal happiness. d)It offered everyone a chance to achieve salvation. 4 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here,Click Here,

27 Chapter 4, Section Section 4 Assessment Legalists believed that a)the best government is the one that governs the least. b)order is achieved through harsh laws and punishments. c) power should be shared among the people. d)government is the cause of many problems. Which of the following was not a reason that Buddhism appealed to many Chinese? a) It presented the Buddha as a merciful god. b)It offered an easy path to salvation. c) It offered hope of eternal happiness. d)It offered everyone a chance to achieve salvation. 4 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here,Click Here,

28 Chapter 4, Section Strong Rulers Unite China How did Shi Huangdi unite China? How did Han rulers strengthen the economy and government of China? Why is the Han period considered a golden age of Chinese civilization? 5

29 Chapter 4, Section How did Shi Huangdi unite China? He replaced feudal states with military districts governed by loyal officials. He sent inspectors (spies) to report on local officials. He forced noble families to live in his capital so he could monitor them. He jailed, tortured, and killed those who opposed his rule. He had all books of philosophy and literature burned. He standardized weights and measures. He created uniformity in Chinese writing. He strengthened the transportation system. He ordered the building of the Great Wall. 5

30 Chapter 4, Section Though his methods were brutal, Shi Huangdi ushered in China’s classical age. This period is called a classical civilization because it set patterns in government, philosophy, religion, science, and the arts that served as the framework for later cultures. How did Shi Huangdi unite China? 5

31 Chapter 4, Section They improved canals and roads. They set up granaries across the empire. They reorganized finances. They imposed a government monopoly on iron and salt. They opened up the Silk Road, a trade route linking China and the West. They made Confucianism the official belief of the state. They relied on well-educated scholars to run the government. They used a civil service exam to find the most qualified officials. Han rulers strengthened the economy and government of China. ECONOMY GOVERNMENT 5

32 Chapter 4, Section The Han Golden Age Built grand temples and palaces. Produced jade and ivory carvings and ceramic figures. Improved bronzeworking and silkmaking techniques. Made paper out of wood pulp. Pioneered advanced methods of shipbuilding. Invented the rudder, fishing reels, wheelbarrows, and suspension bridges. Diagnosed diseases. Used herbal remedies and other drugs for treatments. Developed anesthetics. Explored uses of acupuncture. Wrote texts on chemistry, zoology, and botany. Measured movements of stars and planets. Invented seismograph to measure earthquakes. Han China made such tremendous advances in so many fields, that the Chinese later called themselves “the people of Han.” SCIENCE MEDICINE TECHNOLOGY THE ARTS 5

33 Chapter 4, Section Why did Han emperors institute the civil service exam? a)to find the most qualified officials b)to give special privileges to the sons of nobles c)to give peasants a chance to serve their government d)to discourage applicants from civil service jobs Why did the Chinese call themselves the “people of Han”? a)They were all related by blood to the Han emperor. b)They all came from one region of China. c)China made so many advances during the Han period. d)During that period, the Chinese did not use last names. Section 5 Assessment 5 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here,Click Here,

34 Chapter 4, Section Why did Han emperors institute the civil service exam? a)to find the most qualified officials b)to give special privileges to the sons of nobles c)to give peasants a chance to serve their government d)to discourage applicants from civil service jobs Why did the Chinese call themselves the “people of Han”? a)They were all related by blood to the Han emperor. b)They all came from one region of China. c)China made so many advances during the Han period. d)During that period, the Chinese did not use last names. Section 5 Assessment 5 Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here,Click Here,


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