Presentation on theme: "India’s First Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:
1India’s First Civilizations Chapter 6 Section 3India’s First Civilizations
2Section OverviewThe Mauryan and Gupta dynasties built empires in India, and they contributed greatly to literature, mathematics, and science.
3The Mauryan DynastyChandragupta Maurya, an Indian prince, founded India’s first empire after Alexander the Great left IndiaThis empire was called the Mauryan dynasty.A dynasty is a series of rulers from the same family.Chandragupta controlled his dynasty by retaining a strong army and using spies
5The Mauryan DynastyMany historians consider Asoka the Mauryan dynasty’s greatest king.After he was a strong military leader, Asoka turned away from violence.He made a vow to live a peaceful life and follow Buddhism.Asoka did many great things for his people.
6The Mauryan EmpireFor example, he built hospitals and new roads and sent teachers throughout India to teach Buddhism.The empire grew weak after Asoka’s death.The kings made poor decisions, and the Mauryan Empire fell.
7India’s First EmpiresWhat happened as a result of Alexander the Great’s invasion of northern India?Alexander the Great’s army weakened the people of India. After Alexander the Great and his men left, the people could not resist Chandragupta.
8The Gupta EmpireAfter 500 years of fighting, another Chandragupta took power and founded the Gupta dynasty.After Chandragupta died, his son, Samudragupta, took over and expanded the empire.The Guptas ruled their small kingdom successfully for about 200 years.They grew wealthy from trading salt, cloth, and iron with China and kingdoms in southeast Asia and the Mediterranean.
10The Gupta EmpirePilgrims were people who often used the trade routes to travel to a religious shrine or site.Visiting pilgrims helped make cities wealthy just as tourists make cities wealthy today.The Guptas were Hindus, and they made Hinduism the official religionThe golden age of art and learning in India was during the Gupta empire.
11India’s First EmpiresWhat advantage did the Gupta rulers have that the Mauryan rulers did not?The kingdom had gotten smaller before the Gupta rulers took power. The smaller kingdom was easier to rule.
12Indian Literature and Science The Vedas of India are hymns and prayers used in religious ceremonies.The Vedas were recorded in Sanskrit after the Aryan people came to India.The epics Mahabharata and Ramayana are two epics that tell about warriors and their brave deeds.
13Indian Literature and Science Mahabharata - longest poem in the written language; tells of a war over control of India that occurred around 1100 B.C.- Best known section is the Bhagavad Gita “Song of the Lord”, in which the god Krishna preaches that it is noble to perform one’s duty even when it is painful or difficult.Ramayana - A love story about King Rama and his queen Sita who were separated when his enemies banished him. He lives alone but eventually fights and defeats the demon Ravana, who kidnapped Sita, and they live happily ever after.
14Bhagavad GitaRead the Primary Source insert on p. 214 and answer the question, “What does Krishna believe about life after death?”
15Indian Literature and Science Kalidasa was a writer who lived during the Gupta dynasty.Kalidasa’s poem The Cloud Messenger is one of the most popular Sanskrit poems.Aryabhata was a mathematician who was one of the first to use algebra.
16Indian Math and Science Mathematicians in the Gupta empire developed the symbols for the numbers 1 to 9 that we use today.They also invented algorithms and the idea of zero.Indians also developed ideas in astronomy and medicine.
17Indian Math and Science Indian doctors were very advanced. They could set bones and perform operations.Shushruta carried out early forms of plastic surgery to restore damaged noses.Felt it was important to understand the cause and cure of diseases.
18India’s First EmpiresWhat kinds of medical advances were made by Gupta doctors?Gupta doctors could set broken bones and perform surgeries. They also developed medical tools. One doctor even carried out an early form of plastic surgery.
19India’s First Empires Describe trade during the Gupta empire? Indians traded salt, cloth, and iron with China, Southeast Asia, and the Mediterranean.
20India’s First Empires What is the message of the Bhagavad Gita? It taught people to do their duty even when it was painful.
21India’s First EmpiresAnalyze How were Asoka’s Buddhist beliefs reflected in his accomplishments as king?His improvements were for the overall good. He built hospitals, roads, and rest stops for travelers; sent missionaries throughout India and Asia; carved Buddha’s principles on pillars; built stupas; and practiced religious tolerance.