Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Section 3 India’s First Civilizations. Section Overview The Mauryan and Gupta dynasties built empires in India, and they contributed greatly."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6 Section 3 India’s First Civilizations
Section Overview The Mauryan and Gupta dynasties built empires in India, and they contributed greatly to literature, mathematics, and science.
The Mauryan Dynasty Chandragupta Maurya, an Indian prince, founded India’s first empire after Alexander the Great left India This empire was called the Mauryan dynasty. A dynasty is a series of rulers from the same family. Chandragupta controlled his dynasty by retaining a strong army and using spies
The Mauryan Dynasty Many historians consider Asoka the Mauryan dynasty’s greatest king. After he was a strong military leader, Asoka turned away from violence. He made a vow to live a peaceful life and follow Buddhism. Asoka did many great things for his people.
The Mauryan Empire For example, he built hospitals and new roads and sent teachers throughout India to teach Buddhism. The empire grew weak after Asoka’s death. The kings made poor decisions, and the Mauryan Empire fell.
What happened as a result of Alexander the Great’s invasion of northern India? Alexander the Great’s army weakened the people of India. After Alexander the Great and his men left, the people could not resist Chandragupta. India’s First Empires
The Gupta Empire After 500 years of fighting, another Chandragupta took power and founded the Gupta dynasty. After Chandragupta died, his son, Samudragupta, took over and expanded the empire. The Guptas ruled their small kingdom successfully for about 200 years. They grew wealthy from trading salt, cloth, and iron with China and kingdoms in southeast Asia and the Mediterranean.
The Gupta Empire p. 313
The Gupta Empire Pilgrims were people who often used the trade routes to travel to a religious shrine or site. Visiting pilgrims helped make cities wealthy just as tourists make cities wealthy today. The Guptas were Hindus, and they made Hinduism the official religion The golden age of art and learning in India was during the Gupta empire.
What advantage did the Gupta rulers have that the Mauryan rulers did not? The kingdom had gotten smaller before the Gupta rulers took power. The smaller kingdom was easier to rule. India’s First Empires
Indian Literature and Science The Vedas of India are hymns and prayers used in religious ceremonies. The Vedas were recorded in Sanskrit after the Aryan people came to India. The epics Mahabharata and Ramayana are two epics that tell about warriors and their brave deeds.
Indian Literature and Science Mahabharata - longest poem in the written language; tells of a war over control of India that occurred around 1100 B.C. - Best known section is the Bhagavad Gita “Song of the Lord”, in which the god Krishna preaches that it is noble to perform one’s duty even when it is painful or difficult. Ramayana - A love story about King Rama and his queen Sita who were separated when his enemies banished him. He lives alone but eventually fights and defeats the demon Ravana, who kidnapped Sita, and they live happily ever after.
Bhagavad Gita Read the Primary Source insert on p. 214 and answer the question, “What does Krishna believe about life after death?”
Indian Literature and Science Kalidasa was a writer who lived during the Gupta dynasty. Kalidasa’s poem The Cloud Messenger is one of the most popular Sanskrit poems. Aryabhata was a mathematician who was one of the first to use algebra.
Indian Math and Science Mathematicians in the Gupta empire developed the symbols for the numbers 1 to 9 that we use today. They also invented algorithms and the idea of zero. Indians also developed ideas in astronomy and medicine.
Indian Math and Science Indian doctors were very advanced. They could set bones and perform operations. Shushruta carried out early forms of plastic surgery to restore damaged noses. Felt it was important to understand the cause and cure of diseases.
What kinds of medical advances were made by Gupta doctors? Gupta doctors could set broken bones and perform surgeries. They also developed medical tools. One doctor even carried out an early form of plastic surgery. India’s First Empires
Describe trade during the Gupta empire? Indians traded salt, cloth, and iron with China, Southeast Asia, and the Mediterranean.
India’s First Empires What is the message of the Bhagavad Gita? It taught people to do their duty even when it was painful.
Analyze How were Asoka’s Buddhist beliefs reflected in his accomplishments as king? His improvements were for the overall good. He built hospitals, roads, and rest stops for travelers; sent missionaries throughout India and Asia; carved Buddha’s principles on pillars; built stupas; and practiced religious tolerance. India’s First Empires