Presentation on theme: "Toward Civilization Prehistory--500 B.C. Early Man."— Presentation transcript:
Toward Civilization Prehistory--500 B.C.
Does Geography help us understand why civilizations grew where they did? Check out these places on Google Earth
COMMON? HAVEIN PLACESTHESEDID WHAT
Border Cave A major archeological site in Zululand, South Africa and home of Old Stone Age hunters and gatherers
When did life begin? No one knows for sure when life began What is the Border Cave? Border Cave is a rock shelter in the Lebombo Mountains between South Africa and Swaziland, in Kwazulu Natal, South Africa.
What continent is the border cave located? Africa the world’s second largest continent that lies south of Europe
What country is the Border Cave located? South Africa What two oceans border this country? Atlantic and Indian Oceans In what part of South Africa is the Border Cave located? northeast
How did such technology give one long period of time its name? Stone tools were the main technology so this is where the name Old Stone Age came from Old Stone Age Old Stone Age during this period that lasted from about 12,000 years ago stone tools were the most common technology used by humans. On the back of your study guide, write “Old Stone Age and draw a picture of the Old Stone Age Should include a man with stone tools
The time until about 12,000 years ago Nomads- moved from place to place
During this period of prehistory people developed the ability to use fire!!!! What are two ways the development of this technology affected their lives? It made it possible to cook They could move to colder climates Hint * Put this on chart under “fire”
Where did the Border Cave people live? In a cave!!!!!!!!
The cave was lined with grass and heated by fire. Bows and Arrows Conclusion: they put grass to make the cave more comfortable. Heated wiith fire.
the remains unearthed in the Border Cave in southern Africa-- included the skeleton of an infant They also held religious convictions and believed in the afterlife, for the body of the infant had been carefully and ceremoniously buried. The baby had been buried with seashell beads. This suggest that the baby was deeply cared for. These beads also proved they valued beauty and had contact with the sea. *
What is the meaning on the term technology? Add definition to the chart under tools….. The use of skills to meet practical needs remains Who studies remains of the past? Archaeologists Example of early man‘s technology Stone tools were used to chop and cut They were also used as spearheads for hunting
Hunting and Gathering The Border Cave inhabitants were hunter-gatherers. Hunter-gatherers were people of the Old Stone Age who met needs by hunting animals and gathering plants. **add this definition to the chart under “Hunting” and “gathering” * Almost all of human prehistory took place during the Old Stone Age. **add this information under the chart.
Old Stone Age tools
Why is art from ancient times important?? There are no written records from those times
About 12,000 years ago Earth’s cool climate began to warm. This change caused the number of plants and animals on Earth to soar. The number of people grew as well, as hunters and gatherers around the world took advantage of Earth’s new bounty.
New Stone Age – During this period people still mainly depended on stone tools and they began experimenting with agriculture. The New Stone Age began about 12,000 years ago This period lasted About 6000 years. What change took place on Earth around the time of the New Stone Age? The Earth began to warm * Add this to the top of the study guide Chapter 1 Section 3 **Draw a picture of the New Stone Age on the back of your study guide
The time from 12,000 years ago to 6,000 years ago
Agriculture became important during the New Stone Age period!!! What is agriculture? Agriculture is the raising of crops and animals for human use. ***add this definition between the first and second box on the Section 3 study guide** What did agriculture enable the people of this time period to do? A.People could live in large groups with out need to travel to gather food B. People raised domesticated plants and animals *
What does domesticate mean? To train to be useful to human beings Name two things that the ancient man domesticated ? AnimalsPlants Example: Learning to plants seeds and care for the plant (wheat, barley, peas) Goats, cattle, and sheep ***add this definition between the second & 3 rd box on the Section 3 study guide**
In order for farming settlements to develop into cities the needed a good source of _____________. hint Water *
Surplus – an extra supply of something, such as crops that are not needed immediately for food Extra milk from the cows Extra food left over * *Because of surplus the population grew *add this definition between in the third box on the Section 3 study guide** ***add this to the third box on the Section 3 study guide**
Specialization – training to do a particular kind of work Since people didn’t need to grow food, this led to specialization and become skilled at other trades such as making tools, bricks, and pots. ***add this definition to the fourth box on the Section 3 study guide** *Because of improved farming techniques, population grew ***add this to the fifth box on the Section 3 study guide**
Items traded: pottery/ tools/ weapons/ baskets/ cloth/ spices Items traded for: food/ goods needed One of the most amazing inventions: Wheel & axle Traders easily spread new ideas & information with different cultures ***add this to the fifth box on the Section 3 study guide**
Civilization – a culture that has developed systems of specialization, religion, learning, and government ***add this to the 7th box on the Section 3 study guide** Social classes developed- a group, or class, that is made up of people with similar backgrounds, income and ways of living ***add this to the 8th box on the Section 3 study guide**
The Neolithic site of Çatal höyük was first discovered in the late 1950s. The site rapidly became famous internationally due to the large size and dense occupation of the settlement, as well as the spectacular wall paintings and other art that was uncovered inside the houses. Click to see picture
Catal Huyuk is considered to be one of the world’s first farming community Where is Catal Huyuk? How do you pronounce Catal Huyuk? CHAH tul HOO yook What does Çatal Huyük mean? Forked Mound Turkey Catal Huyuk had a population of about 5000 people Click here to hear for the pronunciation
Why are they studying Çatal Höyük? To learn more about the Neolithic Period, or New Stone Age, when people began abandoning hunter-gatherer lifestyles to settle in communities, grow crops, and raise animals. Lets take the TOUR Click here
Living in Catal Huyuk? The homes were built to last. The houses had brick walls coated with plaster. The houses were built right against each other. Why do you think the houses were built right next to each other? Protection maybe There were no streets in Catal Huyuk? hmmmmm There were no door in Catal Huyuk? hmmmm
Why??? And how did they get from place to place and how did they get in their homes??????? Simple protection again They entered their homes through the roof They used a ladder
diagram shows the dense house layout.
Reconstruction drawing of an 'aerial view' of the Neolithic site in spring
Layout See in real time Click On arrow
1996 Excavations in the Mellaart area with the wall lifting machinery on the right
Interesting fact about Catal Huyuk!!!!!!!!!! What happened when you died in this civilization? After a body was placed in a pit, the pit was filled with clay and the opening sealed with plaster- the platform was coated with a fresh layer of plaster. to add a burial to this pit, it was opened, cleared of earth, the bones of the previous burial pushed aside to make space, and the new burial, tightly wrapped in cloth or reed matting was placed in the pit and resealed. Interestingly, most adults were buried without any grave goods. Babies and children- often buried with long strands of small polished beads made of stone, shell or coral. Click here to See the bones
Copper armband found on one of the individuals excavated in the 4040 area..
Wall paintings discovered in the 1960s
Trade – the exchange of goods between peoples The crafts in Catal Huyuk attracted many people to the city and they began to trade their beautiful items for those that others had to offer.
Exceptional flint 'daggers‘ with decorative one handles
These are modern Obsidian points. This black volcanic glass was the economic fuel that powered Catal Huyuk.
Obsidian products from Catal Huyuk were found in Syria, and Syrian pottery was found in Catal Huyuk. W h a t c a n y o u i n f e r f r o m t h e s t a t e m e n t a b o v e ? ? ? ? Trade The people of Catal Huyuk traded with the people of Syria Infer – deduce, assume Understand Surmise, conclude
Figure 3: Skeletons excavated under the northwest platform of building 1.
The deep sounding at the end of September 1999, with the excavators standing on lake marl. Directions: pressing the daggers with move you forward and backward in the Çatal Newsletter. Clicking the clay figurine will give you a table of contents.
Infant burial conserved and lifted in box,
Figure 22. Grave F.735: a young female c. 18–25
Finds from the recent excavations Clay figure Hook bone
Stone and shell beads Obsidian point Neolithic pot
reconstruction of how it may have looked if the holes in its head were used for decorative purposes.
We do not know what the people of Catal Huyuk believed but religion was obviously important to them. They made figurines of clay and stone, which may have been gods and goddesses. They also mounted bull's skulls on the walls of some buildings and covered them in plaster to resemble living heads. It is believed these buildings were shrines.
Catal Huyuk was abandoned about 5,000 BC. Nobody knows why but it may have been due to climate change. Catal Huyuk was then forgotten for thousands of years till it was rediscovered in Excavation began in The End What happen to Catal Huyuk???
Link on slide 8 just goes to video hit enter when it finishes playing caux/en/ To the cave with flashlight and An extra link
Stone Age nomad fertile domesticate irrigation surplus artisan civilization social class High use words: Evidence/ ward off/ characterize/ pastoral/ occupation/ refine/ axle/ prosperity
1.Technology 2.Old Stone Age 3.Hunter-gatherer 4.Border Cave 5.Agriculture 6.New Stone Age 7.Domesticate 8.Surplus 9.Specialization 10.Civilization 11.Trade 12.Time line 13.Circa