5Border CaveA major archeological site in Zululand, South Africa and home of Old Stone Age hunters and gatherers**Write the red, underlined information on theBorder Cave side of the prediction sheet at the top
6What is the Border Cave? When did life begin? No one knows for sure when life beganWhat is the Border Cave?Border Cave is a rock shelter in theLebombo Mountains betweenSouth Africa and Swaziland, inKwazulu Natal, South Africa.
7Africa What continent is the border cave located? the world’s second largest continent that lies south of Europe
8South Africa Atlantic and Indian Oceans What country is the Border Cave located?South AfricaWhat two oceansborder this country?Atlantic and IndianOceansIn what part of SouthAfrica is the Border Cavelocated?northeast
9Old Stone Age during this period that lasted from about 12,000 years ago stone tools were the most common technology used by humans.How did such technology giveone long period of time its name?Stone tools were the main technology sothis is where the name Old Stone Age came fromOn the back of your study guide, write“Old Stone Age and draw a picture of theOld Stone AgeShould include a man with stone tools
10OLD Stone Age Stone Tools/ Nomads- moved from place to place The time until about 12,000 years agoStone Tools/Nomads- moved fromplace to place**Put this on chart under “Settlement”
11Put this on chart under “fire” *During this period of prehistory peopledeveloped the ability to use fire!!!!What are two ways the developmentof this technology affected their lives?It made it possible to cookHintThey could moveto colder climatesPut this on chart under “fire”
12Where did the Border Cave people live? In a cave!!!!!!!!
14The cave was lined with grass and heated by fire. Bows and ArrowsConclusion: they put grass to make the cave morecomfortable. Heated wiith fire.
15the remains unearthed in the Border Cave in southern Africa-- included the skeleton of an infant They also held religiousconvictions and believedin the afterlife, for thebody of the infant had been carefully and ceremoniouslyburied. The baby had been buried with seashell beads.This suggest that the baby was deeply cared for.These beads also proved they valued beauty and hadcontact with the sea.*
16What is the meaning on the Who studies remains of the past?ArchaeologistsWhat is the meaning on theterm technology? Add definition to the chartunder tools…..The use of skills to meet practical needsExample of early man‘s technologyStone tools were used to chop and cutThey were also used as spearheads for hunting
17The Border Cave inhabitants were hunter-gatherers. HuntingandGatheringThe Border Cave inhabitantswere hunter-gatherers.Hunter-gatherers were people of theOld Stone Age who met needs by hunting animals and gathering plants.**add this definition to the chart under “Hunting” and “gathering”*Almost all of human prehistory took place during the Old Stone Age.**add this information under the chart.
27Why is art from ancient times important?? There are no written records thosetimes
28EarlyPeopleGo to Chapter 1 Section 3on your study guide
29About 12,000 years ago Earth’s cool climate began to warm. This change caused the number of plants andanimals on Earth to soar.The number of people grew as well, as hunters and gatherersaround the world took advantageof Earth’s new bounty.
30What change took place on Earth around the time of the New Stone Age? * Add this to the top of the study guide Chapter 1 Section 3New Stone Age – During this period people still mainlydepended on stone tools and they began experimentingwith agriculture. The New Stone Age began about 12,000 years agoWhat change took place on Eartharound the time of theNew Stone Age?The Earth began to warmThis period lastedAbout 6000 years.**Draw a picture of the New Stone Ageon the back of your study guide
31Farming/ domesticated Put this on chart under Section 3 step 1. NEW Stone AgeThe time from 12,000 years ago to 6,000 years agoFarming/ domesticatedAnimals/ settledPut this on chart under Section 3 step 1.
32Agriculture became important during the New Stone Age period!!! What is agriculture?Agriculture is the raisingof crops and animals for humanuse.***add this definition between the first and second box on the Section 3 study guide***What did agriculture enable the people of this time period to do?People could live in large groups without need to travel to gather foodB. People raised domesticatedplants and animals
33Animals Plants To train to be useful to human beings What does domesticate mean?To train to be useful to human beings***add this definition between the second & 3rd box on the Section 3 study guide**Name two things that the ancient mandomesticated?AnimalsPlantsExample:Learning to plants seeds andcare for the plant (wheat, barley, peas)Goats,cattle, andsheep
34* In order for farming settlements to develop into cities the needed a good source of _____________.Waterhint
35*Surplus – an extra supply of something, such as crops that are not needed immediately for food*add this definition between in the third box on the Section 3 study guide**Extra milk from the cowsExtra food left over*Because of surplus the population grew***add this to the third box on the Section 3 study guide**
36Specialization – training to do a particular kind of work Since people didn’t need to grow food, this led to specialization and become skilled at other trades such as making tools, bricks, and pots.Specialization – training to do a particular kind of work***add this definition to the fourth box on the Section 3 study guide***Because of improved farming techniques, population grew***add this to the fifth box on the Section 3 study guide*****add this to the fifth box on the Section 3 study guide**
37Trade & Spread of Ideas Items traded: pottery/ tools/ weapons/ baskets/ cloth/ spicesItems traded for: food/ goods neededOne of the most amazing inventions:Wheel & axleTraders easily spread new ideas & information with different cultures***add this to the fifth box on the Section 3 study guide**
38Civilization – a culture that has developed systems of specialization, religion, learning, and government***add this to the 7th box on the Section 3 study guide**Social classes developed- a group , or class, that is made up of people with similar backgrounds, income and ways of living***add this to the 8th box on the Section 3 study guide**
40The site rapidly became famous internationally The Neolithic site of Çatal höyük was first discovered in the late 1950s.The site rapidly became famousinternationallydue to the large size and dense occupationof the settlement, as well as the spectacular wallpaintings and other art that was uncovered inside the houses.Click to see picture
41Turkey What does Çatal Huyük mean? CHAH tul HOO yook How do you pronounce Catal Huyuk?Click here to hear for the pronunciationWhat does Çatal Huyük mean?Forked MoundCatal Huyuk is considered to be one of the world’sfirst farming communityTurkeyWhere is Catal Huyuk?Catal Huyuk had a population of about 5000 people
42Why are they studying Çatal Höyük Why are they studying Çatal Höyük? To learn more about the Neolithic Period, or NewStone Age, when peoplebegan abandoninghunter-gatherer lifestyles to settle incommunities, grow crops, and raise animals.Lets take the TOURClick here
43Living in Catal Huyuk? Why do you think the houses were built The homes were built to last. The houses had brick wallscoated with plaster.The houses were built right against each other.Why do you think the houses were builtright next to each other?Protection maybeThere were no streets inCatal Huyuk? hmmmmmThere were no door in Catal Huyuk? hmmmm
44Why??? And how did they get from place to place and how SimpleprotectionagainThey entered theirhomes through the roofAnd how did they get from placeto place and howdid they get in their homes???????They used a ladder
52Interesting fact about Catal Huyuk!!!!!!!!!! What happened when you died in this civilization?Click here toSee the bonesAfter a body was placed in a pit, the pit was filledwith clay and the opening sealed with plaster-the platform was coated with a fresh layer of plaster.to add a burial to this pit, it was opened, clearedof earth, the bones of the previous burial pushedaside to make space, and the new burial, tightlywrapped in cloth or reed matting was placed inthe pit and resealed.Interestingly, most adults were buried without anygrave goods.Babies and children- often buried with long strands ofsmall polished beads made of stone, shell or coral.
53Copper armband found on one of the individuals excavated in the 4040 area. .
57These are modern Obsidian points. This black volcanic glasswas the economic fuelthat powered Catal Huyuk.
58Obsidian products from Catal Huyuk were found in Syria, and Syrian pottery was foundin Catal Huyuk.Infer – deduce, assumeUnderstandSurmise, concludeWhat can you infer from thestatement above????The people of Catal Huyuktraded with thepeople of SyriaTrade
59Figure 3: Skeletons excavated under the northwestplatform of building 1.
60The deep sounding at the end of September 1999, with the excavators standing on lake marl.Directions: pressing the daggers with move you forward and backward in the Çatal Newsletter. Clicking the clay figurine will give you a table of contents.
67reconstruction of how it may have looked if the holes in its head were used fordecorative purposes.
68We do not know what the people of Catal Huyuk believed but religionwas obviously important tothem. They made figurines of clay and stone, whichmay havebeen gods and goddesses. They also mounted bull'sskulls on the wallsof some buildings and covered them in plaster toresemble living heads. It isbelieved these buildings were shrines.
69Catal Huyuk was abandoned about 5,000 BC. Nobody knows why but it may have beendue to climate change.Catal Huyuk was then forgotten forthousands of years till it wasrediscovered in 1958.Excavation began in 1961.What happen to Catal Huyuk???The End
70Link on slide 8 just goes to video hit enter when it finishes playing To the cave with flashlight andAn extra link