Border Cave A major archeological site in Zululand, South Africa and home of Old Stone Age hunters and gatherers
When did life begin? No one knows for sure when life began What is the Border Cave? Border Cave is a rock shelter in the Lebombo Mountains between South Africa and Swaziland, in Kwazulu Natal, South Africa.
What continent is the border cave located? Africa the world’s second largest continent that lies south of Europe
What country is the Border Cave located? South Africa What two oceans border this country? Atlantic and Indian Oceans In what part of South Africa is the Border Cave located? northeast
How did such technology give one long period of time its name? Stone tools were the main technology so this is where the name Old Stone Age came from Old Stone Age – during this period that lasted from about 12,000 years ago stone tools were the most common technology used by humans.
During this period of prehistory people developed the ability to use fire!!!! What are two ways the development of this technology affected their lives? It made it possible to cook They could move to colder climates Hint * *
Where did the Border Cave people live? In a cave!!!!!!!!
The cave was lined with grass and heated by fire. Bows and Arrows
the remains unearthed in the Border Cave in southern Africa-- included the skeleton of an infant They also held religious convictions and believed in the afterlife, for the body of the infant had been carefully and ceremoniously buried. The baby had been buried with seashell beads. This suggest that the baby was deeply cared for. It also suggested that they believed in some type of an afterlife. These beads also proved they valued beauty. *
What is the meaning on the term technology? The use of skills to meet practical needs remains Who studies remains of the past? Archaeologists Example of early man‘s technology Stone tools were used to chop and cut They were also used as spearheads for hunting
1. Archaeology – is the study of the remains of past cultures. 2. Excavate – when archaeologists dig or scoop out dirt.
What clues were found here concerning the beginning of human life? Bones from 2 million years ago
Hunting and Gathering The Border Cave inhabitants were hunter-gatherers. Hunter-gatherers were people of the Old Stone Age who met needs by hunting animals and gathering plants. * Almost all of human prehistory took place during the Old Stone Age.
Notes from Section 2 nomads-Old Stone Age- nomads- 12,000 years agolasted from about 12,000 years ago Middle Stone Age- more advanced tools/ hunter-gatherers people began farming New Stone Age- people began farming What is one way scientists date artifacts?(13)What is one way scientists date artifacts?(13) radiocarbon dating Stone Age divided into 3 periods: (13 ) How did technology give this period this name? Stone tools were the main technology
About 12,000 years ago Earth’s cool climate began to warm. This change caused the number of plants and animals on Earth to soar. The number of people grew as well, as hunters and gatherers around the world took advantage of Earth’s new bounty.
New Stone Age – During this period people still mainly depended on stone tools and they began experimenting with agriculture. The New Stone Age began about 12,000 years ago This period lasted About 6000 years. What change took place on Earth around the time of the New Stone Age? The Earth began to warm *
Agriculture became important during the New Stone Age period!!! What is agriculture? Agriculture is the raising of crops and animals for human use. What did agriculture enable the people of this time period to do? A.People could live in large groups with out need to travel to gather food B. People raised domesticated plants and animals *
What does domesticate mean? To train to be useful to human beings Name two things that the ancient man domesticated ? AnimalsPlants Example: Learning to plants seeds and care for the plant (wheat, barley, peas) Goats, cattle, and sheep
In order for farming settlements to develop into cities the needed a good source of _____________. hint Water *
Surplus – an extra supply of something, such as crops that are not needed immediately for food Extra milk from the cows Extra food left over * *Because of surplus the population grew
Specialization – training to do a particular kind of work People learned to specialize and become skilled at other trades such as making tools, bricks, and pots.
The Neolithic site of Çatal höyük was first discovered in the late 1950s. The site rapidly became famous internationally due to the large size and dense occupation of the settlement, as well as the spectacular wall paintings and other art that was uncovered inside the houses. Click to see picture
Catal Huyuk is considered to be one of the world’s first farming community Where is Catal Huyuk? How do you pronounce Catal Huyuk? CHAH tul HOO yook What does Çatal Huyük mean? Forked Mound Turkey Catal Huyuk had a population of about 5000 people Click here to hear for the pronunciation
Why are they studying Çatal Höyük? To learn more about the Neolithic Period, or New Stone Age, when people began abandoning hunter-gatherer lifestyles to settle in communities, grow crops, and raise animals. Lets take the TOUR Click here
Living in Catal Huyuk? The homes were built to last. The houses had brick walls coated with plaster. The houses were built right against each other. Why do you think the houses were built right next to each other? Protection maybe There were no streets in Catal Huyuk? hmmmmm There were no door in Catal Huyuk? hmmmm
Why??? And how did they get from place to place and how did they get in their homes??????? Simple protection again They entered their homes through the roof They used a ladder
Interesting fact about Catal Huyuk!!!!!!!!!! What happened when you died in this civilization? After a body was placed in a pit, the pit was filled with clay and the opening sealed with plaster- the platform was coated with a fresh layer of plaster. to add a burial to this pit, it was opened, cleared of earth, the bones of the previous burial pushed aside to make space, and the new burial, tightly wrapped in cloth or reed matting was placed in the pit and resealed. Interestingly, most adults were buried without any grave goods. Babies and children- often buried with long strands of small polished beads made of stone, shell or coral. Click here to See the bones
Copper armband found on one of the individuals excavated in the 4040 area..
Items traded: pottery/ tools/ weapons/ baskets/ cloth/ spices Items traded for: food/ goods needed One of the most amazing inventions: Wheel & axle Traders easily spread new ideas & information with different cultures
Trade – the exchange of goods between peoples The crafts in Catal Huyuk attracted many people to the city and they began to trade their beautiful items for those that others had to offer.
Exceptional flint 'daggers‘ with decorative one handles
These are modern Obsidian points. This black volcanic glass was the economic fuel that powered Catal Huyuk.
Obsidian products from Catal Huyuk were found in Syria, and Syrian pottery was found in Catal Huyuk. W h a t c a n y o u i n f e r f r o m t h e s t a t e m e n t a b o v e ? ? ? ? Trade The people of Catal Huyuk traded with the people of Syria Infer – deduce, assume Understand Surmise, conclude
Figure 3: Skeletons excavated under the northwest platform of building 1.
The deep sounding at the end of September 1999, with the excavators standing on lake marl. Directions: pressing the daggers with move you forward and backward in the Çatal Newsletter. Clicking the clay figurine will give you a table of contents.
reconstruction of how it may have looked if the holes in its head were used for decorative purposes.
Civilization – a culture that has developed systems of specialization, religion, learning, and government
We do not know what the people of Catal Huyuk believed but religion was obviously important to them. They made figurines of clay and stone, which may have been gods and goddesses. They also mounted bull's skulls on the walls of some buildings and covered them in plaster to resemble living heads. It is believed these buildings were shrines.
Catal Huyuk was abandoned about 5,000 BC. Nobody knows why but it may have been due to climate change. Catal Huyuk was then forgotten for thousands of years till it was rediscovered in 1958. Excavation began in 1961. The End What happen to Catal Huyuk???
Link on slide 8 just goes to video hit enter when it finishes playing http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/las caux/en/ To the cave with flashlight and An extra link