17There was another important development – the discovery of fire. Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Era)DevelopmentThere was another important development – the discovery of fireThere was another important development – the discovery of fire.
18Many Stone Age people were Nomads, or people who had no settled home.
27Man began to change his diet and eat grains and small animals.
28The Development of Agriculture Agriculture is the raising of crops and animals.The development of agriculture began over a long period of time and in more than one place.People no longer needed to travel great distances to gather food.
29People learned how to domesticate plants and animals. To domesticate means to train something to be useful to people.Early people learned to care for plants such as wheat, barley, peas, and lentils.The first farmers also domesticated wild goats, cattle, and sheep.
30Ancient charred wheat grains are shown in the picture above. Man domesticated wild wheat.
31DomesticatedCornThousands of years ago, an ear of corn did not make much of a meal. (top)It took thousands of years of careful breeding for ears of corn to reach their present size. (bottom)
32New Stone Age (Neolithic Era) Tools People still used stone, bone, and wooden tools, but some new tools were added by using copper and bronze.
33Advanced ToolsThese early farming tools date back to around 8,000 years ago. The axe, bottom, was used for clearing; flint sickles, left, were used for harvesting cereal crops; a flat rock and rounded stone, center, were used for grinding flour; and perforated clay slabs, upper right, were probably used to ventilate bread ovens.
34PrehistoryPaleolithic Age – Old Stone Age (Est. 2 mil BC-9000 BC)Hunters & GatherersNomad: Moving from place to place in search for food.Men hunted & fished.Woman gathered fruits, nuts, etc.Way of LifeCave paintingsStone tools & potteryDomesticated dogsNeolithic Age – New Stone Age (9000 BC – 3000 BC)Farming Neolithic RevolutionPeople could remain in one place.Herding of animals – goats, sheep & cattle.Community –Council of Elders/Chief – made important decisions.Warrior classKept possessions.
36Early PeopleSection 1: Studying the Distant Past• Archaeologists study prehistoric times by examining things that early peoples left behind.• The study of fossils has helped archaeologists learn about the lives of the earliest humans.• Archaeological studies suggest that the earliest humans
37Early PeopleSection 2: Hunter-Gatherer Societies• Hunter-gatherer societies moved from place to place, hunting small animals and gathering plants for food.• The development of tools and the use of fire helped the people in hunter gatherer societies improve their lives.• Modern humans developed the ability to use language, which helped them to survive.
38Early PeopleSection 3: Populating the Earth• By about 12,500 years ago, modern humans had spread to many regions of the world, including Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia, North America, and South America.• Modern humans adapted to Ice Age conditions by building shelters and making warm clothing.• By forming larger groups, modern humans adapted in order to better hunt and defend themselves.
39The Beginning of Civilization Section 1: Early Agriculture• Over a long time, hunter-gatherers domesticated plants and animals, and most groups became farmers.• Although the Middle East was the first center of agriculture, farming appeared in several other parts of the world.• Permanent farming settlements developed, and surplus food allowed some people to become crafts workers.