Presentation on theme: "Um…the history before history…"— Presentation transcript:
1 Um…the history before history… What is prehistory?Um…the history before history…
2 PREHISTORY before written records were kept 1st system of writing – Africa 6,000 years ago (~ 4,000 BC)Oral traditions – older persons in the family/ group repeated tales of past events to younger generations until they learned them by heartBeliefs, traditions, folklore passed down from generation to generation through storiesLater civilizations recorded events on cave walls and animal hides with symbols that later evolved into a system of writing
3 So how did the first humans come to the Americas? AsiaNorth America
7 WHEN did they come here? Anno Domini “In the Year of our Lord” Before Christ2,000 BC2,000 AD10,000 BC8,000 BC6,000 BC4,000 BC30,000 B.C. – 10,000 B.C.First people crossed land bridge into what is now North AmericaPALEOARCHAICWOODLANDMISSISSIPPIANYOU ARE HERE
8 How did changes in settlement patterns affect religious practices? Essential QuestionsHow did changes over time in prehistoric Indian technology and food affected Indian settlement patterns?How did changes in settlement patterns affect religious practices?
10 The Paleo Period Paleo = “Very old” / few lived to be 30 yrs. old Dates10,000-8,000 B.C.Weapons“Clovis” pointsStone spear pointsKnives and scrapersAtlatl – used to propel spears long distancesFoodLarge game hunted animalsMammoths, bisons, ground sloths, and mastadonsWild berries and nuts gatheredDwellingsLived in groups of 25-50Always on the move for food (nomadic) = no permanent housingSlept in caves, under cliffs, and dug out “sleeping pits”ReligionArtifacts to suggest general spirituality – nothing specific
12 The Archaic Period Things becoming more settled Dwellings Dates8,000 – 1,000 B.C.WeaponsNew tools invented to save time and effort (ex. weighted spear, grinding stone)Clovis points become smaller and sharper for smaller gameGrooved Axe – stone head w/ wood handle. Used primarily to chop wood / remove brushFoodHunted smaller game as period progressesDeer, bear, turkey, rabbit, birds, fishFishing and gathering importantLarge remains of middens (trash heaps of shells ) found on Stallings Island in GAClay pots to store and transport food in createdDwellingsSmall groups gathered to form larger groups ofWould move from season to seasonSemi-permanent housing w/ wooden poles covered by animal hides, braches, and barkReligionProper burial of the dead seems to be importantTools, weapons, and ornaments found in tombs
14 The Woodland Period The Mound-Builders! Dates Weapons Dwellings 1,000 B.C. – 1,000 A.D.WeaponsBow and Arrow – better accuracy/saves timeArrowheads become smaller and sharperFoodBeginning of Horticulture (farming)Seeds are saved for plantingNuts, corn, squash, and bottle-gourdSmall game huntedDeveloped clay pottery that lasted longerDwellingsMore sturdy houses (huts) as small groups join together and form tribesFlat-topped mounds for gathering/ceremoniesAnimal effigy mounds – Rock Eagle created in 200 A.D.ReligionBurial mounds with more elaborate tombs containing jewelry, pottery, figurines, and ceremonial objects suggests belief in life after death
15 Snapshots of Woodland-Indian Life Evidence of long-distance tradingSnapshots of Woodland-Indian Life
16 The Mississippian Period Dates1,000 A.D. – 1,600 A.D.WeaponsAll tools and weapons from previous periods – only better-made and more effectiveFoodFarmed most foodCorn, beans, pumpkin, and squash (tobacco for ceremonies)Used slash-and-burn techniquePrepare land with bone/stone hoesStored food in storehouses for constant supplyDwellingsLarge-scale communities w/ palisades and moatsSeveral 1,000 families living togetherWattle and daub houses made of clay and woodMound communities like Etowah and OcmulgeeReligionPriest-chief presides over religious ceremoniesReligious aspects controlled by govt.
18 End of Prehistory?Prehistory ends in Georgia with the arrival of Spanish-Explorer Hernando deSoto. (around 1539)Beginning of traditional European written records of GA
19 How did changes in settlement patterns affect religious practices? Essential QuestionsHow did changes over time in prehistoric Indian technology and food affected Indian settlement patterns?How did changes in settlement patterns affect religious practices?
20 WEAPONS/ TOOLS FOOD RELIGION SETTLEMENTFOODRELIGIONHunter/ gatherLarge animals (Mammoth)Nuts/berriesSmall game (deer/rabbits)Agriculture (growing food)FarmingBeans, squash, cornSpearAtalatalSmaller spear pointsGrooved axeBow & arrowPotteryNomadic (always moving)Semi-permanent hutsSeasonal movementPermanent housesLarge villagesBands of people (25-50)Tribes (more than 100)Proper burial of the deadBuried with objectsafterlifeReligious ceremoniesCeremonial moundsBurial moundstombsPriest chiefs
21 In addition… Sample questions: Which people were 1st to use the atlatl?For what purpose were Georgia villages equipped with guard towers, moats and palisades?Most weapons were made of what substance during the Paleo period?