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Um…the history before history…

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Presentation on theme: "Um…the history before history…"— Presentation transcript:

1 Um…the history before history…
What is prehistory? Um…the history before history…

2 PREHISTORY before written records were kept
1st system of writing – Africa 6,000 years ago (~ 4,000 BC) Oral traditions – older persons in the family/ group repeated tales of past events to younger generations until they learned them by heart Beliefs, traditions, folklore passed down from generation to generation through stories Later civilizations recorded events on cave walls and animal hides with symbols that later evolved into a system of writing

3 So how did the first humans come to the Americas?
Asia North America

4 Beringia – an icey land bridge
North America

5 Why did they come here?


7 WHEN did they come here? Anno Domini “In the Year of our Lord”
Before Christ 2,000 BC 2,000 AD 10,000 BC 8,000 BC 6,000 BC 4,000 BC 30,000 B.C. – 10,000 B.C. First people crossed land bridge into what is now North America PALEO ARCHAIC WOODLAND MISSISSIPPIAN YOU ARE HERE

8 How did changes in settlement patterns affect religious practices?
Essential Questions How did changes over time in prehistoric Indian technology and food affected Indian settlement patterns? How did changes in settlement patterns affect religious practices?

9 Georgia’s Prehistoric Periods

10 The Paleo Period Paleo = “Very old” / few lived to be 30 yrs. old
Dates 10,000-8,000 B.C. Weapons “Clovis” points Stone spear points Knives and scrapers Atlatl – used to propel spears long distances Food Large game hunted animals Mammoths, bisons, ground sloths, and mastadons Wild berries and nuts gathered Dwellings Lived in groups of 25-50 Always on the move for food (nomadic) = no permanent housing Slept in caves, under cliffs, and dug out “sleeping pits” Religion Artifacts to suggest general spirituality – nothing specific

11 Snapshots of Paleo-Indian Life

12 The Archaic Period Things becoming more settled Dwellings
Dates 8,000 – 1,000 B.C. Weapons New tools invented to save time and effort (ex. weighted spear, grinding stone) Clovis points become smaller and sharper for smaller game Grooved Axe – stone head w/ wood handle. Used primarily to chop wood / remove brush Food Hunted smaller game as period progresses Deer, bear, turkey, rabbit, birds, fish Fishing and gathering important Large remains of middens (trash heaps of shells ) found on Stallings Island in GA Clay pots to store and transport food in created Dwellings Small groups gathered to form larger groups of Would move from season to season Semi-permanent housing w/ wooden poles covered by animal hides, braches, and bark Religion Proper burial of the dead seems to be important Tools, weapons, and ornaments found in tombs

13 Snapshots of Archaic-Indian Life

14 The Woodland Period The Mound-Builders! Dates Weapons Dwellings
1,000 B.C. – 1,000 A.D. Weapons Bow and Arrow – better accuracy/saves time Arrowheads become smaller and sharper Food Beginning of Horticulture (farming) Seeds are saved for planting Nuts, corn, squash, and bottle-gourd Small game hunted Developed clay pottery that lasted longer Dwellings More sturdy houses (huts) as small groups join together and form tribes Flat-topped mounds for gathering/ceremonies Animal effigy mounds – Rock Eagle created in 200 A.D. Religion Burial mounds with more elaborate tombs containing jewelry, pottery, figurines, and ceremonial objects suggests belief in life after death

15 Snapshots of Woodland-Indian Life
Evidence of long-distance trading Snapshots of Woodland-Indian Life

16 The Mississippian Period
Dates 1,000 A.D. – 1,600 A.D. Weapons All tools and weapons from previous periods – only better-made and more effective Food Farmed most food Corn, beans, pumpkin, and squash (tobacco for ceremonies) Used slash-and-burn technique Prepare land with bone/stone hoes Stored food in storehouses for constant supply Dwellings Large-scale communities w/ palisades and moats Several 1,000 families living together Wattle and daub houses made of clay and wood Mound communities like Etowah and Ocmulgee Religion Priest-chief presides over religious ceremonies Religious aspects controlled by govt.

17 Snapshots of Mississippian-Indian Life

18 End of Prehistory? Prehistory ends in Georgia with the arrival of Spanish-Explorer Hernando deSoto. (around 1539) Beginning of traditional European written records of GA

19 How did changes in settlement patterns affect religious practices?
Essential Questions How did changes over time in prehistoric Indian technology and food affected Indian settlement patterns? How did changes in settlement patterns affect religious practices?

SETTLEMENT FOOD RELIGION Hunter/ gather Large animals (Mammoth) Nuts/berries Small game (deer/rabbits) Agriculture (growing food) Farming Beans, squash, corn Spear Atalatal Smaller spear points Grooved axe Bow & arrow Pottery Nomadic (always moving) Semi-permanent huts Seasonal movement Permanent houses Large villages Bands of people (25-50) Tribes (more than 100) Proper burial of the dead Buried with objects afterlife Religious ceremonies Ceremonial mounds Burial mounds tombs Priest chiefs

21 In addition… Sample questions:
Which people were 1st to use the atlatl? For what purpose were Georgia villages equipped with guard towers, moats and palisades? Most weapons were made of what substance during the Paleo period?

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