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Georgia’s Prehistoric Past

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Presentation on theme: "Georgia’s Prehistoric Past"— Presentation transcript:

1 Georgia’s Prehistoric Past
Who Were The First Georgians And Where Did They Come From?

2 What Is History? History relates to events that have occurred in the past and are important. In order to study history, you need to use Primary Sources – firsthand accounts of a historical event, which are in writing.

3 Examples of a Primary Source
Some examples of a primary source are newspapers, diaries/journals, autobiographies, and government reports.

4 What is Prehistory Prehistory refers to the period of time before written records were kept. Means before history began No written records were kept during prehistoric times.

5 How can we study prehistory?
We study prehistory with the use of artifacts and ecofacts. Artifacts are objects made by humans (arrowheads, tools, pottery). Ecofacts are natural objects relating to living matter (bones, teeth, skulls, shells).

6 Who Studies Prehistory?
Archeologists study prehistory. An archeologist learns about previous societies by studying the artifacts and ecofacts left behind by that society.

7 The First Americans Human beings originated on the Continent of Africa around five million years ago. In order to survive, they had to hunt and gather all of their food.

8 The First Americans Cont.
12,000 years ago the first humans reached North America. A band of humans crossed an ice bridge called Beringia. The bridge connected Siberia and Alaska. 1,300 miles wide and four times the length of Georgia

9 Picture of Early Humans Crossing Beringia
Was this trip planned, and do you think that they had directions to N. America?

10 Paleo-Indian When did they exist? Existed 10,000-8,000 B.C.
First 2,000 years of Indian life in Southeast.

11 Paleo-Indian What did they eat?
Their diet consisted of meat from bison, mastadons, and sloths. They also ate small game, berries,wild fruit,and vegetables. Often chased them over cliffs to kill them.

12 Paleo-Indian Did they have weapons?
They had several types of weapons. They used knives, spears, and axes. They would sharpen the spearheads and ax heads using rocks. Bow and arrow was not yet invented so they had to use spears and stab animals. The atlatl, a spear throwing device was used for accuracy and to throw further.

13 Paleo-Indian How did they live?
They were nomadic, traveling from place to place, following herds of animals. They usually camped out in the open but when it was cold they would dig pits or build shelters covered with bark, brush, or animal hides.

14 Paleo-Indian OTHER FACTS
Lived off the land and relied on nature for food, clothes, blankets, tools, shelter, etc. Lived in small bands of 20 or so adults and children. Few lived to be older than 30 or 40. Many children died before their first birthday.

15 Archaic When did they exist? Existed 8,000-1,000 B.C.

16 Archaic What did they eat?
The Archaic Indians became dependent on a combination of hunting, fishing, and gathering. Their diet consisted of deer, bear, rabbit, squirrels, fish, berries, nuts, wild fruit, and veggies. They also ate shellfish and oysters.

17 Archaic Did they have weapons? They had a variety of weapons.
They used an atlatl which was a spear throwing device so that they could throw them further and more accurately.

18 Archaic How did they live? Archaic Indians were usually on the move.
They traveled based on the seasons. Later on they adjusted and learned to use the resources around them.

19 Archaic OTHER FACTS They also hunted bear, fox, raccoon, opossum,squirrel, and turkey. Learned to burn small areas of forest to improve hunting. The plants that grew back attracted deer. Made clay pottery and decorative items out of stone and bone.

20 Woodland When did they exist? Existed 1,000 A.D. -1,000 B.C.

21 Woodland What did they eat?
The Woodland Indians were both hunters and gatherers. Their diet consisted of deer, small game, nuts and seeds, squash, and gourds.

22 Woodland Did they have weapons? They had bows and arrows.

23 Woodland How did they live?
Woodland Indians lived in sturdy houses in villages. They stayed in one place for long periods of time.

24 Woodland OTHER FACTS Like their Archaic ancestors, Woodland Indians were at home in the forest. The use of pottery became widespread throughout the Southeast during this period.

25 Mississippian When did they exist? Existed 1,000 A.D. -1,600 A.D.

26 Mississippian What did they eat?
The Mississippian Indians were hunters and they also grew their own vegetables. Their diet consisted of deer, turkey and other small game, corn, beans, and other vegetables.

27 Mississippian Did they have weapons?
They used bows and arrows for hunting and for defense.

28 Mississippian How did they live?
Mississippian Indians had permanent settlements with wattle and daub houses. They had elaborate burial mounds with food and ceremonial objects buried inside.

29 Mississippian OTHER FACTS
The Mississippian Indians preferred living in places that offered rich bottomlands by rivers, long moist growing seasons, and good deer and turkey hunting. Wild foods remained important, but they also came to rely more on agriculture. The Etowah Indian mounds in Cartersville were built by the Mississippians.

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