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1. WHAT IS “PREHISTORY”? 2. WHEN DID IT BEGIN, AND WHEN DID IT END IN GEORGIA? Warm-up for 08.16.11.

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Presentation on theme: "1. WHAT IS “PREHISTORY”? 2. WHEN DID IT BEGIN, AND WHEN DID IT END IN GEORGIA? Warm-up for 08.16.11."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. WHAT IS “PREHISTORY”? 2. WHEN DID IT BEGIN, AND WHEN DID IT END IN GEORGIA? Warm-up for

2 1.What is the definition of “prehistory”? Prehistory refers to the time before written records were kept by human beings.

3 2. When did it begin, and when did it end in Georgia? 1.Began when the very first inhabitants of Georgia arrived some 10,000+ years ago. 2.Prehistory ends in Georgia with the arrival of Spanish-Explorer Hernando DeSoto (around 1539). Beginning of traditional European written records of GA

4 Time to collect HW, set up binders, and talk procedures!!! 5 tab dividers - to be organized into the following sections: 1.) Warm-ups 2.) Notes 3.) Classwork 4.) Quizzes 5.) Government/CEF GA Studies Standards List goes in from of your dividers (1 st thing in your notebook) Classroom procedures: Bathroom = 2 passes per 9 weeks/can enter for drawing Please raise hand and wait to be called on Please do not come up to me without being in your seat and asking for permission by raising your hand.

5 Warm-up for Please draw the timeline below and plot GA’s Prehistoric periods on the timeline. Then, beneath the name of the period, write the name of most important technology created during that period. Mazazoic Period - throwing spear Example only! 10,000 B.C.1539 A.D. AC

6 Warm-up for ,000 B.C.1539 A.D. AC Prehistory in GA Timeline and Most Important Inventions

7 Warm-up for Mazazoic Period - throwing spear Example only! 10,000 B.C.1539 A.D. OL Prehistory in GA Timeline and Most Important Inventions Please draw the timeline below and plot GA’s Prehistoric periods on the timeline. Then, beneath the name of the period, write the name of most important technology created during that period.

8 Warm-up for ,000 B.C.1539 A.D. AC Prehistory in GA Timeline and Most Important Inventions

9 Georgia’s Prehistoric Periods

10 Prehistoric Time Period DwellingsWeaponsFoodReligion PALEO “very old” Dates: around 10,000 B.C. – 8, 000 B.C. lived in groups of always on the move (nomadic) in search of food = NO permanent form of housing used natural features – slept in caves, under trees, or in dug out pits with brush coverings Basic tools made of stone - spears, knives, scrapers Atlatl – propelled spears long distances Large game – Mammoth,. Sloth, Bison, and Mastodons As period moves on and climate warms, natural fruits, nuts, and berries too No evidence found May have had a general spirituality though ARCHAIC “old” Dates: 8,000 B.C. – 1,000 B.C. Combined groups to form larger groups of Around 6,000 B.C., semi-permanent, seasonal housing created Wooden pole homes with thatch roof. Foundation of house 1- 2 feet below surface level for keep cool. Not constructed for long- term use. Invented a wider variety of tools to save time and effort Grooved axe – used primarily to cut wood (stone axe head with wood handle ) Drill, chipper Knives, spears, and scrapers still used Becoming more refined. Smaller and sharper spearpoints/stone heads Archaic Indians moved from season to season in search of food. hunting smaller game now – deer, bear, turkey, rabbit, reptiles, birds, and fish Fruits, nuts, and berries make up bulk of diet Shellfish a big part of diet “Middens” = large trash heaps of discarded shells found at Sapelo Island off the coast of GA (around 2,500 B.C.) Pottery first created and used for food storage and cooking. This allows Indians to travel less in search of food. Proper burial of the dead in specifically designated burial grounds. Burial appears to be “plain” – no extra items buried with dead until the very end of the period (closer to 1,000 B.C.) Georgia’s Prehistoric Periods (Indian Traditions): CHANGE OVER TIME

11 Prehistoric Time Period DwellingsWeaponsFoodReligion WOOD- LAND “Moundbuilders” Trade becomes common over long distances during this period. Dates: 1,000 B.C. – 1,000 A.D. small bands of Indians join together to form larger tribes of homes becoming more permanent with solid cane/grass mat walls. Wooden pole structure still used and foundation sitting 1-2 ft. below ground surface level. Large, circular hole in the roof made to allow smoke to escape. Bow-and-arrow invented. More accurate, greater speed, lighter, and “re-loadable” same tools as in Archaic period just made better, more efficient Birth of AGRICULTURE leads to ability to settle down in one area --- pumpkin, corn, squash, peas, and bottle gourd Provides constant food supply, takes slightly less effort/time freeing Woodland Indians up to do other things Nuts, berries, fruit still gathered Small game still hunted Burial mounds and ceremonial mounds created for 1 st time! Weapons, jewelry, pottery, and ceremonial objects buried with the dead suggest belief in afterlife Animal effigy –a representation or image of a revered animal. Monument or pottery. Rock Eagle in GA- 200 A.D. MISSISS- IPPIAN Named for a culture that 1.) liked to live near rivers, 2.) had long growing seasons, and 3.) frequently hunted deer and turkey. Life is “specialized.” Tribe members have specific jobs and functions. Dates: 1,000 A.D A.D. 1,000+ families in large villages protected by wooden palisades and moats Wattle and daub houses built of wood and clay Most permanent of all dwellings Guard towers built on mounds and used to defend against enemies ALL from previous periods only made better, more efficient Grew most of their food! Corn – most important crop grown Other crops /wild game/ fruits, nuts, and berries listed above still eaten Harvested crops stored in “storehouses” for more consistent food supply “Slash-and-burn” technique used to make farmland more fertile Priest-chief presides over elaborate, lengthy religious ceremonies Religious life starts to be controlled by tribal leaders (a.k.a. – the government of the village)

12 Prehistoric Time Period DwellingsWeaponsFoodReligionFINAL PICTURE PALEO Dates: ARCHAIC Dates: Name _____________________________ Date _____________ Per ______ Georgia’s Prehistoric Periods (Indian Traditions): CHANGE OVER TIME

13 Prehistoric Time Period DwellingsWeaponsFoodReligionFINAL PICTURE WOOD- LAND Dates: MISSISS- IPPIAN Dates:

14 Snapshots of Paleo-Indian Life

15 The Paleo Period Dates  10,000-8,000 B.C. Weapons  “Clovis” points Stone spear points  Knives and scrapers  Atlatl – used to propel spears long distances Food  Large game hunted animals Mammoths, bisons, ground sloths, and mastadons  Wild berries and nuts gathered Dwellings  Lived in groups of  Nomadic = always on the move for food = no permanent housing  Slept in caves, under cliffs, and dug out “sleeping pits” Religion  Artifacts to suggest general spirituality – nothing specific Paleo = “Very old” / few lived to be 30 yrs. old

16 Snapshots of Archaic-Indian Life

17 The Archaic Period Dates  8,000 – 1,000 B.C. Weapons  New tools invented to save time and effort  Clovis points become smaller and sharper  Grooved Axe – stone head w/ wood handle. Used primarily to chop wood / remove brush Food  Hunted smaller game as period progresses Deer, bear, turkey, rabbit, birds, fish  Fishing and gathering important Large remains of middens (trash heaps of shells ) found on Stallings Island in GA  Clay pots to store and transport food in created Dwellings  Small groups gathered to form larger groups of  Would move from season to season  Semi-permanent housing w/ wooden poles covered by animal hides, braches, and bark Religion  Proper burial of the dead seems to be important  Tools, weapons, and ornaments found in tombs Things becoming more settled

18 Snapshots of Archaic-Indian Life Sapelo Island: Stallings Island: Stallings Island, a National Historic Landmark site, was a major settlement of Late Archaic Native Americans from 4,500 to 3,500 years ago. National Historic LandmarkLate Archaic Stallings Island Site Pottery Located in the Savannah River eight miles upstream from Augusta, the sixteen- acre island is the namesake of Stallings Culture and its hallmark pottery, Stallings fiber- tempered wares, the oldest pottery in North America. Savannah River Augusta pottery

19 Snapshots of Woodland-Indian Life Evidence of long-distance trading

20 The Woodland Period Dates  1,000 B.C. – 1,000 A.D. Weapons  Bow and Arrow – better accuracy/saves time  Arrowheads become smaller and sharper Food  Beginning of Horticulture Seeds are saved for planting Nuts, corn, squash, and bottle-gourd  Small game hunted Dwellings  More sturdy houses as small groups join together and form tribes  Flat-topped mounds for gathering/ceremonies  Animal effigy mounds – Rock Eagle created in 200 A.D. Religion  Burial mounds with more elaborate tombs containing jewelry, pottery, figurines, and ceremonial objects The Mound-Builders!

21 Snapshots of Woodland-Indian Life Rock Eagle: Kolomoki Mounds (1 st in GA): l Stallings Island Site Pottery

22 Snapshots of Mississippian-Indian Life

23 The Mississippian Period Dates  1,000 A.D. – about 1600 A.D. Weapons  All tools and weapons from previous periods – only better- made and more effective Food  Grew most food Corn, beans, pumpkin, and squash Used slash-and-burn technique  Stored food in storehouses for a constant supply Dwellings  Large-scale communities w/ palisades and moats Several 1,000 families living together  Wattle and daub houses made of clay, wood, and forest brush  Mound communities like Etowah and Ocmulgee Religion  Priest-chief presides over religious ceremonies Religious aspects controlled by govt. The Europeans are coming soon!

24 Snapshots of Mississippian- Indian Life Etowah Indian Mounds: Stallings Island Site Pottery

25 End of Prehistory? Prehistory ends in Georgia with the arrival of Spanish- Explorer Hernando deSoto. (around 1539)  Beginning of traditional European written records of GA


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