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Final Exam Study Guide. 1.The ozone layer in the atmosphere shields the earth from UV Radiation 2.The largest ecosystem is called the Biosphere 3.The.

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Presentation on theme: "Final Exam Study Guide. 1.The ozone layer in the atmosphere shields the earth from UV Radiation 2.The largest ecosystem is called the Biosphere 3.The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Final Exam Study Guide

2 1.The ozone layer in the atmosphere shields the earth from UV Radiation 2.The largest ecosystem is called the Biosphere 3.The red shift observed in a distant galaxy’s spectra is evidence for the Big Bang Theory (expansion of the universe) 4.The part of the earth that is solid but has the ability to flow is the asthenosphere 5.The earth’s atmosphere is made up of mostly oxygen and nitrogen

3 6.Seismic waves increase in speed when they enter solid substances 7.One characteristic of S waves is that they travel only through solids 8.Geologists believe the source of the earth’s magnetic field may be in the core 9.The mass of an object is defined by the amount of matter in the object

4 10.When the earth is at the farthest point in its orbit from the sun, it is said to be at aphelion 11.How many standard time zones are there around the earth? Circular lines that run perpendicular to the equator are called meridians 13.The shortest distance between any two points on the globe can be found by drawing a great circle

5 14.A contour line that is bold and labeled is called contour interval 15.On topographic maps, closely spaced contour lines indicate steep terrain 16.On topographic maps, contour lines that form closed loops indicate hilltops 17.Which scientist first proposed that the continents were once joined in a single landmass called Pangaea? Wegener

6 18.Which of the following was used as evidence for the theory of continental drift? similarity in continental margins (edges) 19.What discovery did scientists make in the 1940’s when they compared continental rocks to rocks near centers of seafloor spreading rocks at spreading centers were younger 20.Seafloor spreading occurs at divergent boundaries 21.The theory of plate tectonics is most directly based on which of the following interactions? lithospheric plates riding on the asthenosphere

7 22.Where in the earth do convection currents occur? asthenosphere 23.Pieces of land bounded by faults that have different geologic features from those of neighboring land are most likely to be microplate terrains 24.Up-and-down motions of the crust are called isostatic adjustments 25.Which of the following is the major cause of deformation of the earth’s crust? plate tectonics

8 26.What type of force has acted on the rocks in this diagram? tension 27.Folding of rocks is most likely to happen when rocks undergo compression 28.In the diagram above, the rocks in Block 1 form a hanging wall 29.Which of the following usually form along convergent plate boundaries? mountains 30.Which type of seismic wave travels the fastest? P waves

9 31.Which of the following generally causes the most damage during an earthquake? surface waves 32.To determine how far away from a seismograph station an earthquake occurred, scientists plot the difference in arrival times between P and S wave 33.The magnitude of an earthquake is a direct measure of how much energy it releases 34.Which point in this diagram indicates a likely source of a tsunami? point A 35.Most magma forms in the asthenosphere

10 36.Estimates of the earth’s inner temperatures and pressures are primarily based on heat flow measurements and the 37.Which of the following is an example of a mineral? a. quartz 38.The two most abundant elements in common minerals are silicon and oxygen 39.According to the table above, which of the following minerals is white in powdered form? garnet 40.According to the table, what is the approximate hardness of a mineral that scratches quartz and can be scratched by topaz? 7.5

11 41.The most common magnetic mineral is magnetite 42.Minerals that continue to glow after exposure to ultraviolet light are called phosphorescent 43.The parent material for all rocks is magma 44.Two processes responsible for changing sediments into sedimentary rock are compaction and cementation 45.Which of the following types of rock is produced by magma that cools deep below the earth’s crust? intrusive igneous

12 46.Which of the following describes the process by which sedimentary rock becomes metamorphic rock? intense heat and pressure 47.Which of the following is a source of glass? quartz 48.Hematite is a source of iron 49.The process of coal formation began in ancient swamps 50.A serious environmental problem results from burning coal that contains a large amount of sulfur (acid precipitation)

13 51.Which of the following reactions is represented by this diagram? fusion 52.Which of the following is a type of mechanical weathering? ice wedging 53.Lichens and mosses erode rocks by producing acids 54.Rusting is an example of which of the following processes? oxidation 55.Weathering is generally slow in climates with extended periods of cold

14 56.Humus is made up mainly of organic material 57.Which of the following is usually the slowest type of mass movement? creep 58.In the diagram above, the arrow labeled X represents evaporation 59.The path that a river follows is called its channel 60.One difference between an alluvial fan and a delta is that an alluvial fan is deposited on dry ground

15 61.The principle of uniformitarianism states that geologic processes that occurred in the past are still at work today 62.Elements that emit atomic particles and energy are called radioactive 63.Which of the following would most likely be dated using C-14? an ancient skeleton 64.Which process forms fossils by drying the organic matter in an organism’s body mummification 65.Which of the following rock layers in the diagram have the same relative age? 2 and 9

16 66.When a sediment is well sorted, its particles are all about the same size 67.A sloping layer of permeable rock sandwiched between two layers of impermeable rock and exposed at the surface is artesian formation 68.What type of dune is pictured in this diagram? barchan 69.Which of the following is the source of the black sand at beaches? volcanic rock 70.What does coral extract from sea water to build its skeleton? calcium carbonate

17 71.Which of the following adds oxygen to the atmosphere? photosynthesis 72.The layer of the atmosphere in which weather change occurs is the troposphere 73.What is the general name for a large body of air having uniform temperature and moisture content? air mass 74.Which letter designation is used for an air mass that forms over the southwestern United States? cT 75.Which type of front is shown in this diagram? stationary

18 76.A barometer is used to measure air pressure 77.What feature is shown on the weather map? cold front 78.Who first proposed a heliocentric model of the solar system? Copernicus 79.The presence of a magnetic field indicates that a planet may have an iron core 80.The terrestrial planets are composed mostly of solid rock

19 81.The earth is the only planet in the solar system that has oceans of water 82.Which planet in the diagram above is the only planet to support life (has an atmosphere and water)? three 83.What is the name of celestial body that is no longer considered a planet? Pluto 84.Which part of the diagram represents the layer of the sun’s atmosphere that can be seen only during an eclipse? corona ( 4 ) 85.The surface of the sun (the part we see from earth) is called the photosphere

20 86.The sunspot cycle lasts an average of 11 years 87.Cooler regions of the photosphere near strong magnetic fields are called sun spots 88.A sudden outward eruption of electrically charged atomic particles from the sun is called solar flares 89.Which of the following is best described as a cloud of gas and dust? a nebula

21 90.Scientists proposed the meteorite-impact hypothesis to explain the extinction of the dinosaurs 91.The zone of the earth that consists of a solid part and a liquid part is the the core 92.The line of longitude that passes through Greenwich, England, is called the prime meridian 93.The angle between the geographic North Pole and the direction in which a compass needle points is called magnetic declination 94.The two types of crust that make up the surface of the earth are oceanic and continental crust

22 95.The term for the type of plate boundary shown at the point labeled X in this diagram is divergent boundary 96.A boundary formed at the point where two plates slide past each other is called a(n) transform boundary 97.The term for the type of fold shown in this diagram is anticline 98.The general name for magma that flows onto the earth’s surface is lava 99.The major zone of active volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean is called the Pacific Ring of Fire

23 100.The two main groups of minerals are silicate minerals and non-silicate minerals 101.The bending of light rays as they pass through a mineral is referred to as refraction 102.The mixture of gases and particles that surrounds the earth is called the atmosphere 103.The layer of the atmosphere closest to the earth’s surface is the troposphere 104.The deflection of wind caused by the earth’s rotation is called coriolis effect 105.What is the name for a small storm that forms when a thunderstorm meets high-altitude, horizontal winds? tornado

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