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Semester Exam Review 2014
A fault is ____.
a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred
An earthquake’s epicenter is ____.
the place on the surface directly above the focus
The hypothesis that explains the release of energy during an earthquake is called the ____.
elastic rebound hypothesis
Which seismic waves travel most rapidly?
Which one of the following statements is true about P waves?
They travel faster than S waves.
A seismogram shows that P waves travel ____.
faster than S waves
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of S waves?
They temporarily change the volume of material by compression and expansion.
Wegener’s continental drift hypothesis stated that all the continents once joined together to form ____.
one major supercontinent
The supercontinent in the continental drift hypothesis was called ____.
What hypothesis states that the continents were once joined to form a single supercontinent?
Which of the following statements correctly describes the asthenosphere?
It permits plate motion.
In the plate tectonics theory, the lithosphere is divided into ____.
7 major plates and many smaller plates
What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere?
transform fault boundary
A divergent boundary at two oceanic plates can result in a ____.
What type of boundary occurs where two plates move together, causing one plate to descend into the mantle beneath the other plate?
New ocean crust is formed at ____.
Which of the following results when divergence occurs between two oceanic plates?
An example of a divergent plate boundary on continental lithosphere would be ____.
the East African Rift Valley
The Hawaiian Islands were formed when the Pacific Plate moved over ____.
a hot spot
Highly explosive volcanoes tend to have what type of magma?
magma with high silica, high viscosity, and higher gas content
What type of volcano is built almost entirely from ejected lava fragments?
The broad, slightly dome-shaped volcanoes of Hawaii are ____.
A volcano that is fairly symmetrical and has both layers of lava and pyroclastic deposits is a ____.
composite cone volcano
Structures that form from the cooling and hardening of magma beneath Earth’s surface are ____.
The largest intrusive igneous body is called a ____.
What is true about all plutons?
They form below Earth’s surface.
What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
Which of the following terms best describes air?
What is the lowest layer of the atmosphere?
When does the summer solstice occur in the Northern Hemisphere?
When does the autumnal equinox occur in the Southern Hemisphere?
When energy is transferred to air, what happens to the particles of air?
They move faster.
On average, how much of the sun’s energy that reaches Earth’s outer atmosphere is reflected back into space?
Which term describes the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without passing through the liquid state?
The process by which water vapor changes directly to a solid is called ____.
Which of the following refers to the energy that is stored or released during a change of state of water?
What is the dry adiabatic rate?
The wet adiabatic rate of cooling is less than the dry rate because ____.
of the release of latent heat
What is true about stable air?
It tends to resist rising.
Which cloud type is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky?
Which cloud type consists of globular cloud masses with a cauliflower structure?
Which term means “rainy cloud”?
Which clouds are often associated with thunder and lightning?
The most abundant element in Earth’s continental crust (by weight) is ____.
Atoms containing the same numbers of protons and different numbers of neutrons are ____.
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