Presentation on theme: "Triz & Building Information Modeling"— Presentation transcript:
1Triz & Building Information Modeling Instructor:Dr. Nabil AlsawalhiPrepared by:Mansour AlmanassraNovember, 2014
2What is TrizTRIZ is short for teirija rezhenijia izobretalenksh zadach (“theory of inventive problem solving”), developed by the Russian scientist Genrish Altshuller. TRIZ provides systematic methods and tools for analysis and innovative problem solving to support the decision-making process.
3Continuous and effective quality improvement is critical to the organization’s growth, sustainability, and competitiveness.The cost of quality is associated with both chronic and sporadic problems.Engineers are required to identify and analyze the causes and solve these problems by applying various quality improvement tools. Any of these quality tools taken individually does not allow a quality practitioner to carry out the whole problem-solving cycle. These tools are useful for solving a particular phase of the problem and need a combination of various tools and methods to find the solution.TRIZ is an approach that starts at a point where fresh thinking is needed to develop a new process or redesign an existing one.TRIZ focuses on a method for developing ideas to improve a process, get something done, design a new approach, or redesign an existing approach.It has advantages over other problem-solving approaches in terms of time efficiency and low-cost quality improvement solution.The pillar of TRIZ is the realization that contradictions can be methodically resolved through the application of innovative solutions. Altshuller defined an inventive problem as one containing a contradiction. He defined contradiction as a situation where an attempt to improve one feature of the system detracts from another feature.
4Triz methodologyTraditional processes for increasing creativity have a major flaw in that their usefulness decreases as the complexity of the problem increases. At times, the trial-and- error method is used in every process, and the number of trials increases with the complexity of the inventive problem.In 1946, Altshuller was determined to improve the inventive process by developing the “ science” of creativity, which led to the creation of TRIZ. TRIZ was developed by Altshuller as a result of analysis of many thousands of patents. He reviewed over 200,000 patents looking for problems and how they were solved. He selected 40,000 as representative of inventive solutions, and the rest were classified as direct improvements easily recognized within the system. Altshuller recognized a pattern where some fundamental problems were solved with solutions that were repeatedly used from one patent to another, although the patent subject, applications, and timings varied significantly. He categorized these patterns into five levels of inventiveness. Table 1 summarizes Altshuller’s findings.
6Altschuller noted that, with each succeeding level, the source of the solution required broader knowledge and more solutions to consider before an ideal solution could be found.TRIZ is a creative thinking process that provides a highly structured approach to generating innovative ideas and solutions for problem solving. It provides tools and methods for use in problem formulation, system analysis, failure analysis, and pattern of system evolution.TRIZ works in contrast to techniques such as brainstorming and aims to create an algorithmic approach to the invention of new systems and refinement of old systems. Using TRIZ require some training and good deal of practice.The TRIZ body of knowledge contains 40 creative principles drawn from the analysis of how complex problems have been solved, such asThe laws of systems solutionThe algorithm of inventive problem solvingSubstance-field analysis76 standard solutions
7Altshuller’s 40 Principles of TRIZ SegmentationTaking outLocal QualityAsymmetryMergingUniversality“Nested doll”Anti-weightPreliminary anti-actionPreliminary actionBeforehand cushioningEquipotentialityThe other way aroundSpheroidalityDynamicsPartial or excessive actionsAnother dimensionMechanical vibrationPeriodic actionContinuity of useful actionSkipping“Blessing in disguise”Feedback‘Intermediary’Self-serviceCopyingCheap short-livingMechanics substitutionPneumatics and hydraulicsFlexible shells and thin filmsPorous materialsColor changesHomogeneityDiscarding and recoveringParameter changesPhase transitionsThermal expansionStrong oxidantsInert atmosphereComposite material films
8Application of TriZEngineers can apply TRIZ for solving the following problems in construction projects:Nonavailability of specified materialRegulatory changes for using certain types of materialFailure of dewatering systemCasting of lower grade of concrete to that of specified higher gradeCollapse of trench during excavationCollapse of formworkCollapse of roof slab while casting is in progressChiller failure during peak hours in the summerModifying method statementQuality auditor can use to develop corrective actions to audit findings
9TriZ ProcessAltshuller has recommended four steps to invent new solutions to a low-level problems. These are:Step 1—Identify the problemStep 2—Formulate the problemStep 3—Search for precisely well-solved problemStep 4—Generate multiple ideas and adopt a solutionTo solve more difficult problems, more precise tools are used. These are as follows:ARIZ (Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving)Separation PrinciplesSubstance-Field AnalysisAnticipator Failure DeterminationDirect Product Evaluation
10The quality function deployment (QFD) matrix is also used to identify new functions and performance levels to achieve a truly exciting level of quality by eliminating technical bottlenecks at the conceptual stage. QFD may be used to feed data into TRIZ, especially using the “rooftop” to help develop contradictions.The different schools for TRIZ and individual practitioners have continued to improve and add to the methodology.
11building information Modeling Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an innovative process of generating a digital database for collaboration and managing building data during its life cycle and for preserving the information for reuse and additional industry-specific applications.It is Autodesk’s strategy for the application of information technology to the building industry. It helps in better visualization and clash detection, and is an excellent tool to develop project staging plans, study phasing and coordination issues during the construction project life cycle, preparation of As-Builts, and also during maintenance of the project.
12Quality in use aims at defining the quality attributes that are important to the end user. In 1991, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) introduced ISO/IEC 9126 (1991): Software evaluation quality characteristics and guidelines for their use. ISO/IEC 9126 is a four-part model:Part 1: Quality modelPart 2: External metricsPart 3: Internal metricsPart 4: Quality in use metricThere are six characteristics for both external and internal metrics: functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. They can be further subdivided into sub-characteristics. The quality in use metrics has four characteristics: effectiveness, satisfaction, productivity, and safety.
13ISO/IEC was superseded in by ISO/IEC : Software Engineering. All the requirements of ISO/IEC 9126 have been taken care of in this standard. Table 1.16 lists software quality factors to be considered while selecting a software package.