Presentation on theme: "Triz & Building Information Modeling Instructor: Dr. Nabil Alsawalhi Prepared by: Mansour Almanassra November, 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Triz & Building Information Modeling Instructor: Dr. Nabil Alsawalhi Prepared by: Mansour Almanassra November, 2014
What is Triz TRIZ is short for teirija rezhenijia izobretalenksh zadach (“theory of inventive problem solving”), developed by the Russian scientist Genrish Altshuller. TRIZ provides systematic methods and tools for analysis and innovative problem solving to support the decision-making process.
Continuous and effective quality improvement is critical to the organization’s growth, sustainability, and competitiveness. The cost of quality is associated with both chronic and sporadic problems. Engineers are required to identify and analyze the causes and solve these problems by applying various quality improvement tools. Any of these quality tools taken individually does not allow a quality practitioner to carry out the whole problem-solving cycle. These tools are useful for solving a particular phase of the problem and need a combination of various tools and methods to find the solution. TRIZ is an approach that starts at a point where fresh thinking is needed to develop a new process or redesign an existing one. TRIZ focuses on a method for developing ideas to improve a process, get something done, design a new approach, or redesign an existing approach. It has advantages over other problem-solving approaches in terms of time efficiency and low-cost quality improvement solution. The pillar of TRIZ is the realization that contradictions can be methodically resolved through the application of innovative solutions. Altshuller defined an inventive problem as one containing a contradiction. He defined contradiction as a situation where an attempt to improve one feature of the system detracts from another feature.
Triz methodology Traditional processes for increasing creativity have a major flaw in that their usefulness decreases as the complexity of the problem increases. At times, the trial-and- error method is used in every process, and the number of trials increases with the complexity of the inventive problem. In 1946, Altshuller was determined to improve the inventive process by developing the “ science” of creativity, which led to the creation of TRIZ. TRIZ was developed by Altshuller as a result of analysis of many thousands of patents. He reviewed over 200,000 patents looking for problems and how they were solved. He selected 40,000 as representative of inventive solutions, and the rest were classified as direct improvements easily recognized within the system. Altshuller recognized a pattern where some fundamental problems were solved with solutions that were repeatedly used from one patent to another, although the patent subject, applications, and timings varied significantly. He categorized these patterns into five levels of inventiveness. Table 1 summarizes Altshuller’s findings.
Altschuller noted that, with each succeeding level, the source of the solution required broader knowledge and more solutions to consider before an ideal solution could be found. TRIZ is a creative thinking process that provides a highly structured approach to generating innovative ideas and solutions for problem solving. It provides tools and methods for use in problem formulation, system analysis, failure analysis, and pattern of system evolution. TRIZ works in contrast to techniques such as brainstorming and aims to create an algorithmic approach to the invention of new systems and refinement of old systems. Using TRIZ require some training and good deal of practice. The TRIZ body of knowledge contains 40 creative principles drawn from the analysis of how complex problems have been solved, such as The laws of systems solution The algorithm of inventive problem solving Substance-field analysis 76 standard solutions
Altshuller’s 40 Principles of TRIZ 1.Segmentation 2.Taking out 3.Local Quality 4.Asymmetry 5.Merging 6.Universality 7.“Nested doll” 8.Anti-weight 9.Preliminary anti-action 10.Preliminary action 11.Beforehand cushioning 12.Equipotentiality 13.The other way around 14.Spheroidality 15.Dynamics 16.Partial or excessive actions 17. Another dimension 18.Mechanical vibration 19.Periodic action 20.Continuity of useful action 21.Skipping 22.“Blessing in disguise” 23.Feedback 24.‘Intermediary’ 25.Self-service 26.Copying 27.Cheap short-living 28.Mechanics substitution 29.Pneumatics and hydraulics 30.Flexible shells and thin films 31.Porous materials 32.Color changes 33.Homogeneity 34.Discarding and recovering 35.Parameter changes 36.Phase transitions 37.Thermal expansion 38.Strong oxidants 39.Inert atmosphere 40.Composite material films
Application of TriZ Engineers can apply TRIZ for solving the following problems in construction projects: Nonavailability of specified material Regulatory changes for using certain types of material Failure of dewatering system Casting of lower grade of concrete to that of specified higher grade Collapse of trench during excavation Collapse of formwork Collapse of roof slab while casting is in progress Chiller failure during peak hours in the summer Modifying method statement Quality auditor can use to develop corrective actions to audit findings
TriZ Process Altshuller has recommended four steps to invent new solutions to a low-level problems. These are: Step 1—Identify the problem Step 2—Formulate the problem Step 3—Search for precisely well-solved problem Step 4—Generate multiple ideas and adopt a solution To solve more difficult problems, more precise tools are used. These are as follows: ARIZ (Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving) Separation Principles Substance-Field Analysis Anticipator Failure Determination Direct Product Evaluation
The quality function deployment (QFD) matrix is also used to identify new functions and performance levels to achieve a truly exciting level of quality by eliminating technical bottlenecks at the conceptual stage. QFD may be used to feed data into TRIZ, especially using the “rooftop” to help develop contradictions. The different schools for TRIZ and individual practitioners have continued to improve and add to the methodology.
building information Modeling Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an innovative process of generating a digital database for collaboration and managing building data during its life cycle and for preserving the information for reuse and additional industry-specific applications. It is Autodesk’s strategy for the application of information technology to the building industry. It helps in better visualization and clash detection, and is an excellent tool to develop project staging plans, study phasing and coordination issues during the construction project life cycle, preparation of As-Builts, and also during maintenance of the project.
Quality in use aims at defining the quality attributes that are important to the end user. In 1991, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) introduced ISO/IEC 9126 (1991): Software evaluation quality characteristics and guidelines for their use. ISO/IEC 9126 is a four-part model: Part 1: Quality model Part 2: External metrics Part 3: Internal metrics Part 4: Quality in use metric There are six characteristics for both external and internal metrics: functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. They can be further subdivided into sub-characteristics. The quality in use metrics has four characteristics: effectiveness, satisfaction, productivity, and safety.
ISO/IEC 9126 was superseded in 2005 by ISO/IEC 25000: Software Engineering. All the requirements of ISO/IEC 9126 have been taken care of in this standard. Table 1.16 lists software quality factors to be considered while selecting a software package.