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**Polya’s Four Step Problem Solving Process**

Have A Problem??? “How To Solve It!” Polya’s Four Step Problem Solving Process

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Fair Use Guidelines Certain materials are included under the fair use exemption of the U. S. Copyright Law and have been prepared according to the educational fair use guidelines.

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**Today’s TEKS Objective:**

The student is expected to: (B) use a problem-solving model that incorporates understanding the problem, making a plan, carrying out the plan, and evaluating the solution for reasonableness (C) select or develop an appropriate problem-solving strategy from a variety of different types, including drawing a picture, looking for a pattern, systematic guessing and checking, acting it out, making a table, working a simpler problem, or working backwards to solve a problem (8.14) Underlying processes and mathematical tools. The student applies Grade 8 mathematics to solve problems connected to everyday experiences, investigations in other disciplines, and activities in and outside of school.

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Why Problem Solving?? Once, at an informal meeting, a social scientist asked a math professor, “What’s the main goal of teaching mathematics?” The reply was, “Problem solving.” In return, the mathematician asked, “What is the main goal of teaching the social sciences?” Once more the answer was, “Problem solving.”

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Who Solves Problems?? All successful engineers, scientists, social scientists, lawyers, accountants, doctors, business managers, and so on, have to be good problem solvers. Although the problems that people encounter may be very diverse, there are common elements and an underlying structure that can help to facilitate problem solving.

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**Step 1: Understand the Problem**

Identify what you are trying to find. Summarize the information that is available in your own words. Determine if the information available is enough, ie. Do you need a formula, etc.? Strip the problem of irrelevant details. Don’t impose conditions that do not exist.

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Step 2: Devise a Plan Is this problem similar to another problem you have solved? Can one of the Problem Solving Strategies be used? Often a considerable amount of creativity is required to formulate a plan.

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**Strategies for Problem Solving A Strategy is defined as an artful means to an end.**

Make a chart or table. Look for a pattern. Draw a picture or diagram. Eliminate impossible situations. Work Backwards. Guess, test, and revise. Use a variable. Design a model. Try a simpler version of the problem. Use reasoning.

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**Step 3: Carry Out the Plan**

Implement the strategy or strategies that you have chosen until the problem is solved or until a new course of action is suggested. Give yourself a reasonable amount of time in which to solve the problem. If you are not successful, seek hints from others or put the problem aside for awhile. Don’t expect to solve correctly and immediately all problems. Problem Solving takes time and persistence. Don’t be afraid of starting over. Often, a fresh start and a new strategy will lead to success.

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Step 4: Look Back Interpret the results into a sentence with your own words. Check the results to be sure the solution is correct. Does your answer satisfy the statement of the problem? Does it make sense? Ask if there is another way to solve the problem. Ask if there are other problems that can be solved by using the same techniques used in this problem. Make a point of thinking about the strategy that finally worked for this type of problem for future reference.

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**A Sample of the Process in Action**

Problem: Find the sum of Let’s try Step 1: Understand the Problem

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**Step 1: Understand the Problem**

This problem will require getting a common denominator, here 210, converting each fraction, and finding the sum of the numerators. This is obviously a long and tedious process. Maybe there is a quicker way to solve the problem...

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Step 2: Devise a Plan Instead of doing a direct calculation, let’s combine some of the suggested strategies. Namely, make a list of the first few sums and look for a pattern.

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**Step 3: Carry Out the Plan**

The pattern of sums, suggests that the sum of the ten fractions is

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Step 4: Look Back This method of combining the strategy of Solve a Simpler Problem with Make a List and Look for a Pattern is very useful. For example, what is the sum Because of the large denominators, you wouldn’t want to add these fractions directly.

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Problem Solving Recap... When presenting the problem solving process and the sample problem, great care was taken to label and display each of the four steps. Clearly, this is not necessary every time you work a problem. On the other hand, it is a good idea to get into the habit of recalling the four steps as you plan and as you work through a problem. The steps and strategies will be especially helpful when you are making a plan. As you are planning to solve a problem, think of the strategies as a collection of tools which you may select from and utilize to successfully solve your problem.

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**Final Suggestions from Successful Problem Solvers**

Accept the challenge of solving a problem. Take time to explore, reflect, think, … Talk to yourself. Ask yourself lots of questions. Many problems require an incubation period. If you get frustrated, do not hesitate to take a break - your subconscious may take over. But do return to try again. Experience in problem solving is very valuable. Work lots of problems; your confidence will grow. There is nothing like a breakthrough, an “Aha!”, as you solve your problems. Always, always look back. Try to see precisely what the key step was in your solution and make a mental note for future reference. Enjoy yourself! Solving a problem is a positive experience.

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**Credits: John P. Ashby PowerPoint Presentation by… Course: ED 488**

Instructor: Susan Pride Semester: Fall, 1999 Date: November 11, 1999 Title: How To Solve It Software Package: Microsoft PowerPoint

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