Presentation on theme: "Mr. Williamson Somerville HS. MAIN – acronymn 1. Militarism – policy of glorifying military power & values Example - When Germany increases its army/navy,"— Presentation transcript:
Mr. Williamson Somerville HS
MAIN – acronymn 1. Militarism – policy of glorifying military power & values Example - When Germany increases its army/navy, Britain feels like it has to the same An “Arms Race” or military buildup occurs 2. Alliance System – Major Distrust in Europe Major powers sign treaties pledging to defend each other in case of attack…called collective security Intended to promote peace by creating fear in armed conflict Two Major Alliances are Created Triple Alliance – Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire (Central Powers) Triple Entente – Russia, Great Britain, France (Allied Powers)
3. Imperialism increases global competition Countries seek outside land/resource interests in order to improve economy/power Competition leads to greater conflict 4. Nationalism increases tensions Strong feeling of pride/loyalty to a nation ethnic group Led countries to put their own interests first, rivalries begin
Exit Ticket Based on the map exercise, select the alliance that you think will be victorious in World War I. Provide 3 pieces of evidence to support your conclusion.
Writing Challenge Compose a 2-paragraph letter to a family member from the point of view from a soldier (either Allied or Central Powers). Use the format below to create your account: Dear….., 1 st Paragraph – discuss your condition, your feelings, new friends, where you are located. Use the Q&A/map/text to help your writing. 2 nd Paragraph – describe the fighting that is taking place. Be specific. What is the weather like? Describe the landscape of the area. Use the video/Q&A/text to create a real scene Closing….Sincerely, _____________
Armies dug multiple trench lines Front trench – machine guns, grenades Middle trench – supply area Back trench – reserve trench with weary soldiers, bathrooms, medical care Area b/t enemy trenches “NO MAN’S LAND” A guaranteed casualty Life in the Trenches Muddy, dead bodies, overflowing bathrooms, lice, rats Led to disease and painful foot infections
Trench Warfare – led to a long stalemate or deadlock where neither side can advance New Weapons Poison Gas – blinded or choked its victims, blisters & burns Airplanes – Used to observe enemy movements (RECON), later for bombing missions Submarines – U-Boats sank merchant/supply ships
Nations realize in order to win the war, it would require all of society’s resources “Total War” – Gov’ts began to take stronger control of citizen’s lives Install new economic controls Civilians ration/conserve food/goods for military use Factories switch from peacetime to wartime production Gov’t seeks to control public opinion Use of propaganda, info designed to influence people’s opinions Posters, articles, pamphlets, etc.
Combat Methods Change Machine Gun – rapid fire weapon, did not take long to reload Armies could not attack head-on, open field offensives led to quick deaths “Big Guns” – for long-range bombings, used to blast through barb wire or spread poison gas Inflicted more than ½ of all casualties from WWI
What was used in World War II? Poison Gas – used by both sides, caused blinding or severe blisters, death. Would have to wear masks for protection Machine Gun – automatic weapon was much improved and was very popular. Could wipe out waves of attackers, helped create a stalemate Tank – armored combat vehicle moving on chain tracks Airplane – used for photos of enemy lined then later for bombing and first hand combat with other pilots Submarine – Known as U-Boats, used a torpedo (underwater missle)
Setting the Scene 1914 – Europe has enjoyed about a century of relative peace since the end of the French Revolution Taste of distrust is in Europe Major powers sign treaties pledging to defend each other in case of attack Intended to promote peace by creating fear in armed conflict Two Major Alliances are Created Triple Alliance Triple Entente
Triple Alliance – Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary German Chancellor Otto Van Bismarck believed that France would not attack Germany without assistance. France wanted to avenge its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War As a result, he wanted assurances from other countries about protection in case of attack In WWI, they would be known as the Central Powers.
Triple Entente – France, Britain, Russia 1904 – Britain/France signed an entente, nonbinding agreement to follow common policies. Led to close military/political ties Russia would later sign a similar agreement with Britain. They would later become known as the ALLIES.
Rivalries/Nationalism Increase Tension European powers guarded their status, competed for position in many areas (military, economics, etc.) Economic Differences Germany is the newest of the great powers, Britain feels threatened by their economic power. Germany feared Russia’s size and resources would make it unbeatable Overseas Rivalries Competition for colonies in Africa between France/Germany almost brought them to war. France strengthen ties with Britain.
International tensions on the rise…lead to buildup of military Britain/Germany become fierce military competitors and aim to build the world’s biggest navy. An “Arms Race” follows and the rise of militarism painted war in a romantic way.
Nationalism – strong in both Germany/France Germany – new military strength, industrialization France – bitter of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, wanted revenge, province of Alsace & Lorraine Eastern Europe – Russia sponsors a form of nationalism called Pan-Slavism, holding the belief that all Slavic people held a common nationality. Austria-Hungary/Ottoman Empire (Turkey) feel threatened by the nearby nations (The Balkans, Serbia), could take territory away from them 1912 – Balkan states take large areas of Turkey but inner fighting among these states led to raised tensions.
The Powder Keg – Regional war would escalate into WWI or the Great War Assassination in Sarajevo – Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria- Hungary would visit Serbia. He was the heir to the current Austria emperor. Serbs/Slavs viewed Austrians as foreign oppressors and did not want the visit to happen. Archduke and his wife, though warned, are assassinated by Gavrilo Princip of Black Hand, a terrorist group.
The Reaction – Shocked, Austria-Hungary is hesitant for war. Kaiser Wilhelm II, now chancellor of Germany, is horrified of the assassination of his ally and urges emperor to take a firm stand and a “blank check” is given to Austria from Germany. Austria sends Serbia an ultimatum (final set of demands), Serbia refuses on only a few conditions, Austria declares war.
Alliances kick in – see p. 458 in green text if you are confused. Russia asks Austria to soften demands, they refuse and mobilize its defense for Serbia, appeals to ally of France. France accepts as it wants revenge for their defeat from Germany. In turn, Germany declares war on Russia/France as a result of their alliance. Italy/Britain remain neutral at the start
Germany wanted to crush France quickly because they would have to fight a two-front war (east/west, Russia/France). Developed the Schlieffen Plan to march through Belgium, encircle French Army. However, Britain/European powers signed a neutrality agreement with Belgium. Once they were invaded by Germany, Britain follows suit.
Map Activity – P. 455 in Green Textbook Answer the following questions on your own: 1. How many soldiers did the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Russia? Provide answers for each country. 2. Which alliance had more soldiers, the Central or Allied Powers? 3. Name three cities in the Austria-Hungary empire. 4. List 4 neutral nations on the map. 5. What alliance was the Ottoman Empire associated with? 6. List the countries included in the Balkans. 7. Approximately, what is the distance between: Paris-Berlin Vienna-Sarajevo Constantinople-Budapest
Great War becomes the largest conflict in history French – 8.5 million men British – 9 million Russian – 12 million German – 11 million Germans go through Belgium in order to sack Paris quickly, they fail to capitalize on their invasion Schlieffen Plan fails for multiple reasons: Russia mobilized quicker than previously thought, Germany had to fight both in the East/West British/French drove Germans back making quick victory impossible
Eastern Front Russia advances into Germany in 1914 Suffers HEAVY losses, loses at Tannenburg Because of lack of industrialization, not equipped to fight modern war 1915 – Bulgaria joins the Central Powers and helps defeat Serbia Romania joins the Allies but is later crushed by Central Powers Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary, Germany Italy was promised Austrian lands by the Allies if victorious Battle of Carpetto – Italians suffered heavy losses but are bailed out by the Allies in order to stop Central Powers advance
Ottoman Empire joins the Central Powers, 1914 Ottomans control the strait connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Called the Dardenelles, this was how the Allies got supplies to Russia Battle of Gallipoli – Turks trapped Allies on the beach for 10 months resulting in 200k casualties. Allies withdraw from the Dardenelles
Role of Propaganda – played a significant role in creating support for the war effort for all countries. Your task with your partner: Create a SIMPLE propaganda poster for your assigned country Create a pro-war message in your poster on why you think war is the answer Use illustrations, pictures from the text to help you create your poster Lastly, be creative and use the next slide to help you create your propaganda poster. GOOD LUCK!
1917 – European societies cracking under the strain of war Mass casualties, food shortages, stalemate drags on without end Total War – Nations realized that this war required channeling the nation’s entire resources into a war effort Gov’t took on a stronger role directing economic/political policy. Raised taxes/borrowed $ to finance war The Draft (conscription) required all young men to be ready for the military Navy Blockades were used to keep ships from carrying supplies in and out of countries Lusitania – British sea liner torpedoed by German U-Boat carrying 1200 passengers, including 128 Americans
Women’s Role – women take over jobs, keep the economy rolling Worked in War Industries – weapons, supplies Nurses, Volunteers Gave women a new sense of pride/confidence Morale Collapses – Troops/Civilian Morale Plunges War Fatigue – large casualties, food shortages, failure of generals Russian Revolution – distraction at home for Russia
US Enters the War Historically supported Allies because of cultural ties German resumes unrestricted submarine warfare, President Wilson is outraged 1917 – The Zimmerman Note German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman send a note to his ambassador in Mexico to propose that if Mexico aided the Central Powers, they would help them recoup NM, TX, and AZ. Wilson’s 14 Points – Wilson’s goal to be a peacemaker Freedom of seas, free-trade, large reductions in arms, etc. League of Nations Victory at Last – US Enters, Allies launch a large attack forcing Germany back across France/Belgium
German generals inform the Kaiser that defeat is inevitable Uprisings force the Kaiser to step down, new gov’t in place New German government sought an ARMISTICE, or agreement to stop fighting on 11/11/18 at 11am NOW KNOWN AS VETERAN’S DAY The Great War is over!
“A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words” Using the following painting, create an account as if you were the main soldier in this piece of art. Place yourselves in the soldier’s shoes knowing what you know about the fighting, weapons and trench warfare that was so popular during WWI, create a diary entry/personal account of 2-3 paragraphs about their/your current situation. GOOD LUCK!
World Leaders arrive in France for the Paris Peace Conference Costs of War – human/material costs are staggering Battle zones from France to Russia are completely destroyed Farms, factories, roads, churches in rubble Reconstruction would prove costly People are bitter about the war Allies BLAME the conflict on their enemies and force them to pay reparations (payments for war damage) to the Allies
The Peace Conference World leaders gather to discuss the fate of Europe Central Powers/Russia not allowed to take part in negotiations Leaders Woodrow Wilson – US, wanted his 14 Points Plan Georges Clemenceau – France David Lloyd George – Britain Land promised to Italy was not given as it violated “self- determination” Various nationalities of the Ottoman, Russia, Austria-Hungary empire made it difficult to build nations around them League of Nations, Wilson’s idea, would be created for collective security
Treaty of Versailles – June 1919, Allies order new German gov’t to sign the treaty they had drawn up. Had to sign it, they had no choice. Germany had to accept full-blame of the war Huge reparations bill Cut the size of German military Give back Alsace Lorraine to France Lose their overseas colonies Treaty left widespread dissatisfaction, leading to a greater conflict in the future Birth of the League of Nations – more than 40 nations join. Agreed to negotiate disputes rather than resort to war
Based on the reading, answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper with your partner: 1. Germany was unable to send representatives to the Treaty of Versailles negotiations. Do you believe this is a fair practice? Explain. 2. Of the 6 terms of the Treaty summarized for you, which three (3) do you feel are the harshest? Be able to briefly explain your rationale for each. 3. List 3-4 key words/phrases that describe how Germans felt toward the Treaty.
In your groups, each individual student will have a choice of creating 1 of the below assessments on the Treaty. People in the same group CANNOT DO THE SAME CHALLENGE. 1. Write a letter to a relative (from the perspective of a German mother-father) about the Treaty of Versailles and your unhappiness with the terms of the agreement. 2 paragraphs! 2. Create a newspaper headline and small informational article about the treaty itself, the terms and its effect on Germany. 2 paragraphs! 3. Create a visual/cartoon on the Treaty of Versailles and its effect on the German people. No color is necessary. Be creative! Hint: Create rough drafts, use notebook, share ideas with teammates Treaty of Versailles summary sheet. rubric to be distributed, also online. 20 points
Based on the discussions in class, create your own “Treaty of Versailles” with a minimum of at least 8 points that will be the basis of the Post-WWI Peace Agreement. Brainstorm then place onto the provided poster. Be sure to take into account all stakeholders (winners, losers, etc.) when creating your peace agreement. Think about the viewpoints discussed yesterday/today and goal of a lasting peace. Also, compose a 1-2 paragraph response on how your treaty differs from the one created at the Paris Peace Conference. Refer to yesterday’s handout! Lastly, your group will present both at the end of class today. Small Project Grade – 15 points (5 for each – poster, response, presentation)