11Commercial Solar Loline Pumped systemCollectors and tank are splitFluid is pumped between collectors and tanksCan be on same level or different levelsDirect systemConsumed water passes through the collectorsPartial frost protectionIn series boost
13Commercial Solar Loline 325L and 410L vitreous enamel storage tanksManifold tanks as requiredNPT200 collectorPainted aluminium selective surface7 riser tubesGood performance in all regions
14Commercial Solar Loline FrostLimited frost protectionFrost sensor strategyElectric or gas frost heaterSecondary Solar RecirculationMaximum solar energy usereduces energy useBMS outputRun and fail status
16Commercial Solar Premier Hiline Thermosiphon systemCollectors and tank are close coupledFluid rises through collectors naturally to tankTank is always above collectorsIndirect systemTransfer fluid passes through the collectors and transfers heat to tank via heat exchangerFull frost protectionIn series or in- tank electric boost
17Commercial Solar Premier Hiline 300L stainless steel tankManifold systems as required8 systems per array, multiple arrays possibleS200 collectorSteel collectorPainted selective surfaceGood performance in all regions
21EQUA-FLOW BASICS Equa-Flow Basics The purpose of Equa-flow manifolding is to ensure water is used or generated equally in all cylinders in the manifold.Water will always take the path of least resistance, therefore ensuring equal resistance in the equaflow manifold is the key to equa-flow manifolding.First PrincipleDirection of flow must always be in the same direction through the manifold headers.This is sometimes referred to as “first in, last out”, but this can be confusing and needs to be understood. Other terminology could also be “water must exit the manifold at the opposite end to which it enters”.
22EQUA-FLOW BASICS In Line Header diameters for cold/hot to be equal Branch diameters for cold/hot to be equalHydraulic water flow “In one side, out the opposite”Balanced performance per unit. Full delivery capacity from systemFlow direction OutIn LineFlow direction InHeader sizes need to be equal to the diameter of cold supply to the plant and branch sizes should be at least one pipe size diameter smaller; Bushing down at the inlet/outlet connections is permissable.
23EQUA-FLOW BASICSFlow direction OutBack to BackFlow direction In
24EQUA-FLOW BASICS 1 B 0+1+1=2 A AB0+1+1=2Water enters the first cylinder at point A, and thus travels zero distance through the manifold.Water exits the first cylinder and travels along the hot water manifold for a distance of 2 metres to point B, the end of the manifold.Total distance, or lineal resistance, equals 2 metres.
26MORE EQUA-FLOW PRINCIPLES 21B12=6=6=6It follows, then, that the hot and cold water branches do not necessarily need to be identical.All hot water branches must be identical, and all cold water branches must be identical, but the hot and cold branches can be different to each other.In this true life example, the plant room door was in the middle of the room and the heaters had to be placed on both sides of the door. The cold water and hot water manifolds were run at high level, above the door, and long droppers were run for each cold water branch.In this example, the cold branches could be 2m long, and the hot branches are 1m long, as well as the distance between tanks is different.From Point A to Point B, including the branches:The first heater has a resistance of = 6m.The second heater has a resistance of = 6mAnd the third heater has a resistance of = 6m
27ANGLED MANIFOLD 1 3 + bend A B The same is true for angled manifolds. The third heater is encumbered by a manifold length 2 metres longer than the manifold between heaters one and two, plus one bend. This applies to both the cold and hot water manifolds.Following the manifold principles, each cylinders’ resistance is as follows:Cylinder 1:Cold manifold = zeroHot manifold = bendTotal = bendCylinder 2:Cold manifold = 1Hot manifold = bend.Cylinder 3:Cold manifold = bendHot manifold = zeroThe key principle is that direction of flow is maintained in the same direction
28BACK TO BACK MANIFOLD 0.75 1 1 A B 1 1 0.75 H2:= 2.75H4:= 2.75H6:= 2.75AH5:= 2.75BH1:= 2.75H3:= 2.75Back to Back manifolds can be a little hard to follow, but the principles remain unchanged.In the illustrated example, the distance between branches between heater 1 &2 and 5 &6 is shorter than the distance between other branches. The distance travelled in each header is identical for hot and cold.Once again, the key principle is that direction of flow is maintained in the same direction.110.75
33TO WATER HEATER MANIFOLD BRANCHESNEVER use non-return valves or pressure limiting valves in the branchThese create imbalance in the branchesNon-return and pressure reducing valves must be in a train on the cold water inletCOLD WATER SUPPLYTO WATER HEATER MANIFOLDNever use non-return valves or pressure limiting valves in branches.These create pressure imbalances between the branches and will affect equaflow performance.All control valves must be installed in a train on the cold water inlet.
34BRANCHES Only an isolating valve and union must be in the branch Full flow gate or ball valves must ONLY be usedNEVER use duo valves or loose jumper valvesThese create imbalance in the branchesSo far we have been concentrating on flow direction and balancing resistance in the headers.Branch resistance is equally important.Each branch must ONLY contain an isolating valve and unionUse ONLY gate valves or ball valves, both fully open.Duo valves and loose jumper valves create imbalance in the branches. Further, both of these valves act as non return valves and can affect water flow in certain applications. This will be discussed in more detail further in the session.
35BRANCHEST PIECELast branch should be a T piece, not an elbow, to maintain equal resistance in all branchesIdeally, the last branch in a manifold should be a T piece, not an elbow, in order to maintain equal resistance in all branches.
37RHEEM INDOOR CFWH – FLUE SYSTEMS USE MM AND FF ADAPTERS IF HORIZONTAL LENGTH OF HORIZONTAL TERMINATING FLUE EXCEEDS 2.7MTRIMRINGUSE CONDENSATE DRAIN & TRAP IF VERTICAL SECTION OF HORIZONTAL TERMINATING FLUE EXCEEDS 2M
38Rheem Multipak, Tankpak, Commpak and Commpak Plus Commercial Continuous Flow Hot Water Solutions
48RHEEM Commercial Electric Storage Work horse of the industry2 x 3 element models – 50 & 315L1 x 6 element model – 315LUp to 36kW outputIndoor and outdoor installationHeavy Duty enamelLarger anodeModels up to 82oC
55Energy ConsumptionIt takes 4.2kJ of heat energy to raise 1litre of water (or 1 kg) of water 1 degree E = L x 4.2 x dT Example : To raise 500 litres by 32 degrees (from 10C to 42C) Energy consumption = 500 x 4.2 x 32 = 67,200kJ or 67.2MJ Plant efficiency must also be considered. If the plant operates at 80% efficiency, then; Energy required = 67.2 / 0.8 = 84MJO/H 14 - Why You Should Recommend RheemTAB - Rheem leads the way with Hot Surface Ignition, the safest, simplest and smartest way to control water heaters.TAB - We offer a full 5 year replacement warranty for commercial applications, 10 year for domestic.TAB - With features, such as HSI, high thermal efficiency, polyurethane insulation and flue damper, we lead the way in energy conservation and reduced running costs.TAB - Rheem incorporates the latest technology features into all of its designs.TAB - At the end of the day, however, lots of hot water when you need it, is still the main criteria. Only Rheem mains pressure water heaters provide true multipoint operation.TAB - And backing our first class products is a nationwide network of service to ensure your customers are never left out in the cold and the right technical advice from a professional and friendly sales team.
56Typical Hot Water Usage Assumptions OfficesOffice peak period 60 minutesWater per person litresArea per person 10m2OccupantsGymnasium peak period 30 minutesWater per person litres
57Typical Hot Water Usage Assumptions Food ServiceRestaurant Peak Period – 2 hours(temperature requirements)Bistro per Meal 5.0 litresCoffee Shop per Meal 3.5 litresAuditorium per Meal 3.0 litresRestaurant per Meal 5.5 litresTakeaway Shop per MealCafé per Meal litresHotel Kitchen per Meal 6.0 litresRemember to consider commercial temperature requirements
58Typical Hot Water Usage Assumptions ApartmentsPeak period 60 minutesBed-sitter litres1 Bedroom litres2 Bedroom litres2 Bedroom w/en suite litres3 Bedroom litres3 Bedroom w/en suite litres4 Bedroom litresPenthouse litres
60Typical Hot Water Usage Assumptions MotelMotel peak period 60 minutes(Assume 2 people per room)Shower 1 & 2 Star 20 litres /personShower 3 Star 25 litres /personShower 4 Star 30 litres /personShower 5 Star 45 litres /personShower Family/Spa 100 litres /person
61Sizing example... Motel 100 rooms 5 star accommodation Central electric plantModerate climateRefer to commercial booklet...
62Sizing example... Motel Showers = 50 x 2x 45 = 4,500L/1hr peak Moderate climate = 50oC riseCentral electric plant:5 x with 6 x 6kW elements
63Hot Water Usage Assumptions Nursing HomePeak period 180 minutesBedpan 2.5 litres / bedShower 25 litres / bedCleaning water 10 litres / bedWater per meal 5.5 litresLaundry peak 300 minutesLaundry (1.2kg per bed) 10 litres / kg
64Selecting a water heating system Usage profiles...Have they changed?Peak Period in Litres/hr (e.g. 1hr)RedundancyDaily Load in Litres (Solar)...Water delivery TemperaturesPlant Location - Indoor or OutdoorFlue location & termination (room sealed?)Circulation Systems...considerations
65Sporting Facility Case Study Football Club - Tasmania
66Sizing example... Local football club 15 shower 6 litres per minute (hot)35 players inc umpiresCommercial heat pump systemRefer booklet...
67Sizing example... Players and Umpires = 35 Shower time, say 10 mins Peak duration = 30minsShowers = 35 x 6L/min x 10 = 2,100 litresPlant selection:6 x storage tanks1 x heat pumpambient =244L/hr = 9hrs
68SELECTION & SIZING... Diversity... The difference between the maximum possible load on a water heating system if all outlets were in use at once and the “likely” load at any given time.Example...In a multi story accommodation building, only a predictable percentage of taps will be turned on at any given time, however it can be expected that all taps in a shower block of a sporting facility can be turned on at once and will require full heated water flow.
69CFWH PLANT or STORAGE PLANT... What to consider? SELECTION & SIZINGCFWH PLANT or STORAGE PLANT...What to consider?Footprint availability e.g. solarStorage volume?Maintenance/removalFlow ratesGas and water pressureFluingEnergy/fuel types
70Commercial Installation and Design Requirements Chapter 12Commercial Installation and Design Requirements
72Primary Pump Requirements Used for Raypak, Solar and Heat PumpNon return valve is not required after primary pump.Spindle must be horizontalPump is not weather proof – must be coveredIsolation ValvePrimary PumpNote: Pump shaft must be horizontal
73NOT EQUA-FLOW PUMP SPINDLE VERTICAL There were two main problems with the installation.The pumps were installed with the spindle in the vertical orientation. This is a problem as these circulators are water cooled and rely on water to flow around the armature to keep the motor cool.Installed as shown, an air pocket can exist which may lead to little or no flow and ultimately to pump failure.This is often a hard message to get across, typically asking that the pump be installed with the shaft in the horizontal orientation. Most plumbers believe the pumps in this photo are installed horizontally. And whilst it is true the water flow is horizontal, the axis of the shaft is vertical.As it turned out, the pump shaft was broken on one of the heat pumps which explains why the unit tripped out immediately - With no water flow, the heat pump cannot transfer the heat it generates, leading to high discharge pressure in the refrigerant.2) Of more importance however is that the primary flow and return between the two banks was, in fact, not plumbed in equa-flow. The direction flow to the two branch headers is from bottom to top, or from closest tank to furthest tank.The section of main header between the two branch headers is less than 300mm, yet, not plumbed in equaflow, is sufficient for water flow to favour one bank over the other. In this case, the closest bank.
82Water must be at sanitizing temperature i.e. 77 degrees
83The solar arrayTo achieve the energy rating for the building, solar has been chosen.Often solar is a preferred method to achieve the energy reduction on site.Note - north facing collectorsNote - the fall protectionThe panels are set in two arrays of 8 collectors
8416 Rheem solar panels – ‘primary source of heat’ Each square meter(approx) of panel requires approx. 60 litres of solar storage tank capacity!