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Chapter 7 Skeletal Tissues

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Skeletal Tissues"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Skeletal Tissues

2 Introduction Description of bone Functions of bone
Active living Tissue Organ Functions of bone Muscle attachment Protection Support Blood cell production Mineral storage Slide

3 Types of Bones - varied structure to meet varied needs
Four Types Long bones Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones Slide

4 Types of Bone Tissue Compact bone Cancellous bone (Spongy Bone) Slide

5 Parts of a long bone Diaphysis Epiphyses Articular Cartilage
Periosteum Medullary cavity Endosteum Slide

6 Short, flat and irregular bones
Inner portion - Cancellous bone Outer portion - compact bone Some with bone marrow Slide

7 Bone Tissue Characteristics
Connective tissue Great Tensile strength Composition of bone matrix Inorganic salts Crystals of calcium and phosphate Magnesium and sodium ground substance Slide

8 Dancing skeleton Puppet

9 Bare bones Slide

10 Microscopic Structure of the Bone (Figure 7-3)
Compact bone Osteons, or Haversian systems Canals connecting cells and osteons- Canaliculi and Volkmann’s Osteocytes Purpose Slide

11 The structure of bone Slide

12 Microscopic Structure of the Bone
Compact bone Four types of structures make up each osteon: Lamella Lacunae Canaliculi Haversian canal (central canal) Slide

13 Microscopic Structure of the Bone
Cancellous bones (spongy) No osteons Trabeculae - support marrow Nutrients and waste transported by diffusion Slide

14 Types of bone cells Osteocytes Osteoblasts Osteoclasts Slide

15 The life of an osteoclast

16 Bone Marrow Made of myeloid tissue Red marrow - produce of blood cells
Located in medullary cavities of long bones and in the spaces of spongy bone Two types of marrow Red marrow Yellow marrow Slide

17 Regulation of Blood Calcium Levels
Cells that maintain constancy of blood calcium levels Osteoblasts -take calcium from blood to build bone Osteoclasts - remove calcium from bone Homeostasis essential Bone formation, remodeling, and repair Blood clotting nerve impulses Muscle contraction Slide

18 Mechanisms of calcium homeostasis
Parathyroid hormone - primary calcium regulator Stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone Increase renal absorption Stimulates vitamin D synthesis Calcitonin - produced in thyroid Stimulates bone deposit by osteoblasts Inhibits osteoclasts Slide

19 Development of Bone Osteogenesis
Intramembranous ossification (flat bones) Osteoblasts formed Osteoblasts secrete matrix and collagen Calcium is deposited Trabeculae form Endochondral ossification (long bones) - begin as cartilage Diaphysis ossifies before epiphysis Epiphyseal plate - growth plate Layers Resting cartilage Zone of proliferation, Zone of hypertrophy Zone of calcification Slide

20 Fractures Fracture - damages tissues and blood vessels
Vascular damage initiates repair Fracture healing Slide

21 steps Callus forms - specialized repair tissue - binds broken ends together Fracture hematoma - blood clot - occurs after fracture, then resorbed and replaced by callus Slide

22 Compression fracture Slide

23 Depression fracture Slide

24 Impacted fracture Slide

25 Spiral fracture Slide

26 Greenstick Fracture Slide

27 Simple fracture Slide

28 Compound fracture Slide

29 Dislocation Slide

30 Cartilage Characteristics Avascular Fibers embedded in gel
Flexibility of firm plastic Chondrocytes - nutrients, oxygen by diffusion Perichondrium- covering Slide

31 Cartilage - differ because of amount of matrix and fibers
Types of cartilage Hyaline cartilage - most common Articular surfaces, found in trachea, bronchi, tip of nose Elastic cartilage - external ear, epiglottis, eustachian tubes Fibrocartilage - occurs in symphysis pubis, intervertebral discs Slide

32 Cartilage Histophysiology of cartilage - permits cartilage to sustain great weight/serve as shock absorber Growth of cartilage Interstitial or endogenous growth - cartilage cels divide/secrete matrix - during childhood/adolescense Slide

33 Cycle of Life: Skeletal Tissues
Ossified by mid-twenties Adults—changes occur from specific conditions Increased density and strength from exercise Decreased density and strength from pregnancy, nutritional deficiencies, and illness Advanced adulthood—apparent degeneration Hard bone matrix replaced by softer connective tissue Exercise can counteract degeneration Slide

34 Skeletal movement Slide

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