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SAP2b: Relate structure and function in skeletal system

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Presentation on theme: "SAP2b: Relate structure and function in skeletal system"— Presentation transcript:

1 SAP2b: Relate structure and function in skeletal system
Anatomy November 6th Warm Up: Brief definition of these terms: pg 134: axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton, compact bone, spongy bone, Classwork: Introduction to skeletal system; color sheet bone structure Closing: discussion of bone types

2 The Skeletal System Chapter 6

3 System Functions: Support (bones, cartilage, ligaments)
Protection (ribs & skull) Movement (muscle to bone by tendons) Storage Calcium & Phosphorus in bone Adipose in Yellow Bone Marrow Blood Cell Production in Red Bone Marrow


5 Made of Connective Tissue with different substances in their Matrix:

6 Bone – collagen, calcium, phosphate
Cartilage – collagen & proteoglycans Tendons – collagen (tough & ropelike) Ligaments – collagen

7 Types of tissues Collagen – common fibrous protein found in our bodies – makes up about 25% or more of the protein we have Proteoglycans – carbohydrate and amino acid chains bound together

8 Bone Types:

9 Long Bones – longer than wide
ex. Ulna & Femur Short Bones – long as they are wide ex. Carpals & Tarsals Flat Bones – thin & flat ex. Scapula, ribs & skull bones Irregular Bones – shape doesn’t fit other types ex. Vertebrae & Facial Bones

10 Bone Structure/Contents:

11 Diaphysis – central shaft
Epiphysis – ends Articular Cartilage – covers the Epiphyses

12 Medullary Cavity – spaces within the Diaphyses that contains Marrow
Red Marrow – forms blood cells Yellow Marrow – adipose storage

13 Periosteum – dense connective tissue covering bone contains blood vessels & nerves

14 Endosteum – thinner connective tissue lining the Medullary Cavity

15 Osteoblasts – bone forming cells (they originate from the periosteum or from the bone marrow)
Osteoclasts – bone removing cells Osteocytes – mature bone cells

16 Osteoclasts Osteoblasts Osteocytes

17 Lamellae – thin sheets of bone matrix
Lacunae – spaces in bone where osteocytes are located Trabecular is synonymous with Cancellous or Spongy bone.


19 2 Major Types of Bone Based on their Density:

20 1.) Compact Bone – mostly solid (dense) cells
2.) Cancellous or Spongy Bone - A Lacy network of bone with small marrow filled spaces

21 Bone Formation/Growth

22 Ossification – Bone Formation
By Osteoblasts A matrix of collagen and proteoglycans is laid down by the osteoblasts Osteocytes form (this starts during fetal development & ends around yr of age)

23 Bone Growth in Length Composed of cartilage
Epiphyseal Plate also called the Growth Plate Composed of cartilage Found between the epiphysis & diaphysis Growth occurs from this point. When growth stops, the plate cartilage is replaced by bone and it is then called the Epiphyseal Line.

24 Bone Growth in Width New bone lamellae (sheets of bone cells) are deposited onto existing bone Osteoblasts are deposited onto new bone on top of the periosteum, which increases the width.

25 Bone Remodeling Allows for bone to restructure and reshape itself to help to maintain bone strength Existing bone removed by osteoclasts & deposition of new bone using osteoblasts

26 Incomplete & Closed Fracture Complete & Closed Fracture
Bone Fractures Incomplete & Closed Fracture Complete & Closed Fracture

27 Bone Fractures Open Complete Fracture

28 Repair of Bone Fractures
Bones contain Nerves and Blood Vessels

29 What occurs in a broken bone…
damages blood vessels within bleeding occurs & a clot forms a fibrous network of connective tissue forms at the break – holding bone together cartilage is added this zone of tissue repair is called the Callus

30 Cancellous Bone is slowly remodeled to from Compact Bone
Continued…. Osteoblasts invade the Callus & forms cancellous bone – taking 4-6 weeks for completion Cancellous Bone is slowly remodeled to from Compact Bone Total healing time requires several months for normal bone strength to return

31 Bleeding & clotting occurs
Fibrous Connective Tissue & Cartilage is formed. Compact bone eventually replaces cancellous bone. Cancellous Bone forms.

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