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SAP2b: Relate structure and function in skeletal system Warm Up: Brief definition of these terms: pg 134: axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton, compact.

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Presentation on theme: "SAP2b: Relate structure and function in skeletal system Warm Up: Brief definition of these terms: pg 134: axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton, compact."— Presentation transcript:

1 SAP2b: Relate structure and function in skeletal system Warm Up: Brief definition of these terms: pg 134: axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton, compact bone, spongy bone, Classwork: Introduction to skeletal system; color sheet bone structure Closing: discussion of bone types Anatomy November 6th

2 The Skeletal System Chapter 6

3 System Functions: Support (bones, cartilage, ligaments) Protection (ribs & skull) Movement (muscle to bone by tendons) Storage –Calcium & Phosphorus in bone –Adipose in Yellow Bone Marrow Blood Cell Production –in Red Bone Marrow

4

5 Made of Connective Tissue with different substances in their Matrix:

6 Bone – collagen, calcium, phosphate Cartilage – collagen & proteoglycans Tendons – collagen (tough & ropelike) Ligaments – collagen

7 Types of tissues Collagen – common fibrous protein found in our bodies – makes up about 25% or more of the protein we have Proteoglycans – carbohydrate and amino acid chains bound together

8 Bone Types:

9 Long Bones – longer than wide ex. Ulna & Femur Short Bones – long as they are wide ex. Carpals & Tarsals Flat Bones – thin & flat ex. Scapula, ribs & skull bones Irregular Bones – shape doesn’t fit other types ex. Vertebrae & Facial Bones

10 Bone Structure/Contents:

11 Diaphysis – central shaft Epiphysis – ends Articular Cartilage – covers the Epiphyses

12 Medullary Cavity – spaces within the Diaphyses that contains Marrow Red Marrow – forms blood cells Yellow Marrow – adipose storage

13 Periosteum – dense connective tissue covering bone contains blood vessels & nerves

14 Endosteum – thinner connective tissue lining the Medullary Cavity

15 Osteoblasts – bone forming cells (they originate from the periosteum or from the bone marrow) Osteoclasts – bone removing cells Osteocytes – mature bone cells

16 Osteoclasts Osteoblasts Osteocytes

17 Lamellae – thin sheets of bone matrix Lacunae – spaces in bone where osteocytes are located Trabecular is synonymous with Cancellous or Spongy bone.

18

19 2 Major Types of Bone Based on their Density:

20 1.) Compact Bone – mostly solid (dense) cells 2.) Cancellous or Spongy Bone - A Lacy network of bone with small marrow filled spaces

21 Bone Formation/Growth

22 Ossification – Bone Formation By Osteoblasts A matrix of collagen and proteoglycans is laid down by the osteoblasts Osteocytes form (this starts during fetal development & ends around yr of age)

23 Bone Growth in Length Epiphyseal Plate also called the Growth Plate Composed of cartilage Found between the epiphysis & diaphysis Growth occurs from this point. When growth stops, the plate cartilage is replaced by bone and it is then called the Epiphyseal Line.

24 New bone lamellae (sheets of bone cells) are deposited onto existing bone Osteoblasts are deposited onto new bone on top of the periosteum, which increases the width. Bone Growth in Width

25 Allows for bone to restructure and reshape itself to help to maintain bone strength Existing bone removed by osteoclasts & deposition of new bone using osteoblasts Bone Remodeling

26 Bone Fractures Incomplete & Closed Fracture Complete & Closed Fracture

27 Bone Fractures Open Complete Fracture

28 Repair of Bone Fractures Bones contain Nerves and Blood Vessels

29 damages blood vessels within bleeding occurs & a clot forms a fibrous network of connective tissue forms at the break – holding bone together cartilage is added this zone of tissue repair is called the Callus What occurs in a broken bone…

30 Osteoblasts invade the Callus & forms cancellous bone – taking 4-6 weeks for completion Cancellous Bone is slowly remodeled to from Compact Bone Total healing time requires several months for normal bone strength to return Continued….

31 Bleeding & clotting occurs Fibrous Connective Tissue & Cartilage is formed. Cancellous Bone forms. Compact bone eventually replaces cancellous bone.


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