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Vowels A vowel sound is produced with an open passage of air in the mouth. Vowel sounds are produced are articulated with a free airflow. The shape of.

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Presentation on theme: "Vowels A vowel sound is produced with an open passage of air in the mouth. Vowel sounds are produced are articulated with a free airflow. The shape of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vowels A vowel sound is produced with an open passage of air in the mouth. Vowel sounds are produced are articulated with a free airflow. The shape of the mouth forms a cubic area or a tube-shaped cavity that starts from the throat and ends at the lips. The upper surface of the tongue ’ s main body is like a convex or a hump in the mouth.The upper surface of the tongue ’ s main body is like a convex or a hump in the mouth.

2 Vocal tract as a resonating tube

3 How are different vowels made? Changing the size and the shape of the VOCAL TRACT - a set of tubes filled with air 1. Oral cavity 2.Pharyngeal cavity 3.Nasal Cavity

4 /i:/ in see large pharynx small oral cavity / ɑ : / in park small pharynx large oral cavity

5 [i] The sound which is produced when the tongue is as high and as far forward in the mouth as is possible while still producing a vowel. [ ɑ ] The tongue is as low and as far back in the mouth as is possible while still producing a vowel.

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7 Descriptive Terms 1- Horizontal axis: Front vowels lie beneath the hard palate, back vowels lie beneath the soft palate, and central vowels lie beneath the area between the soft and hard palate. Front - Central – Back Front - Central – Back 2- Vertical axis: high vowels are made with the front tongue is close to the palate. Low vowels are made with the tongue is lowered from the mouth and automatically entails the opening of the mouth. Close - Mid - Open Close - Mid - Open 3- The position of the lips is a third dimension for describing vowel sounds, i.e., rounded or unrounded vowels. 4- A vowel is long or short

8 How vowels are described? How vowels are described? The position of the highest point of the tongue: how high or low the highest point of the tongue is. how front or back the tongue’s highest point in the mouth is

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10 Vowel Description /i/ as in see is close, front, unrounded, long /u/ as in food is close, back, rounded, long / ɜ / as in shirt is half close, central, slightly rounded, long / ɔ / as in is half open, back, slightly rounded, long / ɔ / as in bought is half open, back, slightly rounded, long / ɑ / as in park is open, back, slightly rounded, long

11 Vowel Description / I / as in sit is front, half-close, unrounded short / ʊ / as in book is half-close back rounded short as in get is front half-close unrounded short /e/ as in get is front half-close unrounded short /ə/ as in ago, writer is central half-open slightly rounded short /ə/ as in ago, writer is central half-open slightly rounded short /æ/as in cat is open, front neutral short /æ/as in cat is open, front neutral short / ʌ / as in cut is central open short neutral / ʌ / as in cut is central open short neutral

12 In the following sets of words the sound of the vowel is the same in every case but one. Circle the word that has a different vowel sound. Then write the vowel symbol that represents the common sound in the remaining three pen said death mess mean Meat steak weak theme green sane pad fat chap mast hoot good moon view suit cup dub core some numb groom saw chore shore port

13 Read the following words and group them in columns under their vowel symbol: [ board, two, bored, moth, do, through, blue, daughter, crew, cod, dog, cup, some, pause, dull, doll, choose, chores, Paul, true, dove ] /ʌ//ʌ//ʌ//ʌ/ɒ /u/ /ɔ//ɔ//ɔ//ɔ/

14 Describe the vowel sound in each of the following words: sought, pot, cut, seed, father, soon, bird, sad, bit, about

15 Answer sought: open, back, long, slightly rounded pot: open, back, short, slightly rounded cut: central open short neutral Seed: close, front, unrounded, long Father : open, back, slightly rounded, long Soon : close, back, rounded, long Bird : half close, central, slightly rounded, long Sad : open, front neutral short Bit : front, half-close, unrounded short about : central half-open slightly rounded short

16 Diphthongs Diphthongs involve a movement or glide from one vowel to another. A vowel which remains constant and does not glide is called a pure vowel. The total number of diphthongs in English is Eight. Diphthongs Centering ending in ə closing ending in I ending in ʊ ɪəɪə eəeə ʊəʊə eIeI aIaI ɔɪ əʊəʊ aʊaʊ

17 Examples of Diphthongs A diphthong is a combination of two vowel sounds. It is a tongue movement from one vocalic position to another. Diphthongs in English include: 1. / ɪ ə/ beer, fear 2. /eə/ chair, stare 3. / ʊ ə/ sure, tour, pour 4. /e I / say, weigh, pay 5. /a I / high, buy, site 6. / ɔɪ / toy, joy, coy 7. /ə ʊ / go, hello, 8. /a ʊ / house, now, found

18 Triphthongs A triphthong is a glide from one vowel to another and then to a third, all produced rapidly and without interruption.  e I ə layer, player  a I ə liar, fire  ɔ I ə loyal, royal  ə ʊ ə lower, mower  a ʊ ə hour, power

19 Arabic Vowel Short vowels: / I / kasra, / ʊ / dammah, /ə / Fathah Long vowels : /i/ فيل, /u/ فول, / æ / فات Diphthongs: / a ʊ / نوم, سوف, /a I / بيت, كيف 1. English has a greater number of vowels than Arabic. This creates problems for Arab learners in the recognition and production of English vowel sounds. 2. Arabic learners commonly have problems pronouncing central vowels / ə / and / ɜ :/. They try to fit the English vowels into their vowel system. **Did you see the beard in the tree? # Did you see the bird in the tree?  / I / # /e/ [s I t], [set], / ʌ / # / ɒ / [l ʌ k], [l ɒ k], / ɜ :/ # /a:/ [d ɜ :t], [da:rt]  / ɪ ə/ [beer] [be:r]  / ʊ ə/ [ ʃʊ ə] [ ʃ u:r]  / ə ʊ / [kə ʊ t] [k ɔ :t]

20 Arabic Vowels 3. There are some English vowels that do not exist in Arabic like /e/,/ ɔː /,/ ɒ /,/ ɜː /,/ə/,/ ɑː / 4. Arabic learners usually experience difficulties distinguishing between the sounds below and often have trouble producing them /e/, / ʌ /, / ɒɔ /e/, / ʌ /, / ɒ /, / ɔ / 5. The schwa / 5. The schwa /ə/ is problematic for Arab learners as in the word /bəna:nə/. The schwa replaces unstressed vowels. Also function words: am [əm], does [dəz], the [ðə], [fə], to [tə] 6. Vowel length: voiceless consonant in each of the following pairs of consonants, [θ, ð], [s,z], [p, b], [f,v], [t,d], k,g], [ ʃ, ʒ ], [t ʃ, d ʒ ], influences the vowel preceding it and makes it shorter than in the case of voiced consonant. Notice the length of vowel in pairs such as /seif/ and /seiv/, /grə ʊ θ/ and /lə ʊ ð/, /bit/ and /bid/.

21 Find the errors in the transcription of the consonant sounds in the following words. In each word there is one error, indicating an impossible pronunciation of that word for a native speaker of English of any variety. Correct the error: 1. wishing [wishiŋ ] should be [ ] 2. wives [waIvs] should be [ ] 3. these [ θiz ] should be [ ] 4. hijacking [ha I jæk ɪ ŋ] should be [ ] 5. chipping [t ʃɪ pp ɪ ŋ ] should be [ ] 6. avoid [æv ɔ I d ] should be [ ] 7. bedroom [bedr ɔ m ] should be [ ] 8. manage [mænæd ʒ ] should be [ ] 9. umbrella [umbrelə ] should be [ ]

22 Find the errors in the transcription of the consonant sounds in the following words. In each word there is one error, indicating an impossible pronunciation of that word for a native speaker of English of any variety. Correct the error: 1. wishing [wishiŋ ] should be [w ɪʃɪ ŋ ] 2. wives [waIvs] should be [waIvz ] 3. these [ θiz ] should be [ðiz ] 4. hijacking [ha I jæk ɪ ŋ] should be [ha I d ʒ æk ɪ ŋ ] 5. chipping [t ʃɪ pp ɪ ŋ ] should be [t ʃɪ p ɪ ŋ ] 6. avoid [æv ɔ I d ] should be [əv ɔ I d ] 7. bedroom [bedr ɔ m ] should be [ bedrum ] 8. manage [mænæd ʒ ] should be [ mænəd ʒ ] 9. umbrella [umbrelə ] should be [ əmbrelə ]

23 Transcribe the following sentences 1. We can see three trees. 2. He still lives in the big city. 3. The girl with curls has furs and pearls. 4. The boy was annoyed by boiled oysters. 5. Sue threw the soup into the pool. 6. The doll at the top costs lots.

24 Transcribe the following sentences 1. wi kæn si θri triz 2. hi st ɪ l l ɪ vz ɪ n ðə b ɪ g s ɪ ti 3. ðə g ɜ rl w ɪ θ k ɜ rlz hæz f ɜ rz ənd p ɜ rlz 4. ðə b ɔ I wəz ən ɔ I d ba I b ɔ I ld ɔ I stərz 5. su θru ðə sup ɪ ntu ðə pu:l 6. ðə d ɒ l ət ðə t ɒ p k ɒ sts l ɒ ts

25 ev ə r s ɪ ns ð ə ta I m ə v ð ə griks, dr ɑ m ə h ə z ple I d ə n ɪ mp ɔ rt ə nt rl ɪ n pip ə lz l ɪ vz. ð ə grik tr æ d ʒ ə diz ə nd km ə diz w ə r ə sentr ə l p ɑ rt ə v ð ə la I f ə v ð ə s ɪ t ə z ə nz ə v ent ʃ ə nt gris. ev ə r s ɪ ns ð ə ta I m ə v ð ə griks, dr ɑ m ə h ə z ple I d ə n ɪ mp ɔ rt ə nt r ɔ l ɪ n pip ə lz l ɪ vz. ð ə grik tr æ d ʒ ə diz ə nd k ɒ m ə diz w ə r ə sentr ə l p ɑ rt ə v ð ə la I f ə v ð ə s ɪ t ə z ə nz ə v ent ʃ ə nt gris.

26 Ever since the time of the Greeks, drama has played an important role in people's lives. The Greek tragedies and comedies were a central part of the life of the citizens of ancient Greece. Ever since the time of the Greeks, drama has played an important role in people's lives. The Greek tragedies and comedies were a central part of the life of the citizens of ancient Greece.

27 The government should provide more financial assistance to parents who use childcare. Childcare centers may assist children in their early development. They give children an opportunity to mix with other children and to develop social skills at an early age. The government should provide more financial assistance to parents who use childcare. Childcare centers may assist children in their early development. They give children an opportunity to mix with other children and to develop social skills at an early age.

28 ð ə g ə v ə rm ə nt ʃʊ d pr ə va I d m ɔ r fa I n æ n ʃ ə l ə s ɪ st ə ns tu pr ə nts hu juz t ʃ ajldk ɛ r. t ʃ a I ldkr sent ə rz me ə s ɪ st t ʃɪ ldr ə n ɪ n ð ɛ r ə rli d ɪ vel ə pm ə nt. ðe I g ɪ v t ʃɪ ldr ə n ə n p ə rtun ə ti tu m ɪ ks w ɪ ə ð ə r t ʃɪ ldr ə n ə nd tu d ɪ vel ə p s ɔʃ ə l sk ɪ lz ə t æ n ə rli e I d ʒ. ð ə g ə v ə rm ə nt ʃʊ d pr ə va I d m ɔ r fa I n æ n ʃ ə l ə s ɪ st ə ns tu p ɜ r ə nts hu juz t ʃ ajldk ɛ r. t ʃ a I ldk ɜ r sent ə rz me ə s ɪ st t ʃɪ ldr ə n ɪ n ð ɛ r ə rli d ɪ vel ə pm ə nt. ðe I g ɪ v t ʃɪ ldr ə n ə n ɒ p ə rtun ə ti tu m ɪ ks w ɪ ð ə ð ə r t ʃɪ ldr ə n ə nd tu d ɪ vel ə p s ɔʃ ə l sk ɪ lz ə t æ n ə rli e I d ʒ.

29 Phonology  Phonology examines the organization and distribution of speech sounds in a particular language as well as the interaction between those different sounds. While we find two or more languages have the same sounds, no two languages organize their sound inventories in the same way. S >>>> p, t, k S >>>> p, t, k ??? S >>>> f, g, v ** fwallow **smlt are not possible words in English

30 Phonology  In every language, certain sounds are considered the ‘same’ sound even though they may be different. /top/, /stop/, /little/, /kitten/ /top/, /stop/, /little/, /kitten/ For native speakers, all these words have /t/ in them, at least at some psychological level. They can ignore the phonetic differences since they are non-distinctive whereas in other languages there is a difference between aspirated and non- aspirated sounds. They can change meaning and thus called distinctive. /but/, /shut/, /take/, /try/ are the same in English though the first two are pronounced like Arabic /ط/. They are non- contrastive. The two sounds are two different phonemes in Arabic as in words تاب, طاب ، سماء ، سطاء The two sounds are two different phonemes in Arabic as in words تاب, طاب ، سماء ، سطاء Say why the following are phonemes in Arabic but not in English Say why the following are phonemes in Arabic but not in English [ /T/, /Z/, /S/ ]

31 Phonemes  A phoneme: It is a class of speech sounds that are identified by a native speaker as being the same sound. So a phoneme is like an umbrella which may have several forms or several pronunciations, i.e. (a family of sounds). It is the smallest sound unit in a language that can indicate a difference in meaning.  One way for establishing the phonemes of a language is by means of minimal pairs. Pan ban Pan ban Can cat Can cat Pill bill Pill bill Buy tie Buy tie Beat bit Beat bit Shy sigh Shy sigh

32 Allophones  An allophone: the members of this class of sounds (the phoneme) which are the actual phonetic segments produced by a speaker. It is a phone that has been classified as belonging to the same class or phoneme /t h /, /t/ or /p h / /p/. /t h /, /t/ or /p h / /p/.

33 Some phonological rules Assimilation: It causes a sound to become more like a neighboring sound with respect to some feature: 1. When a sound having the features of an alveaolar stop /t/, /d/ precedes a bilabial consonant, it causes /t/, /d/ to take on the feature bilabial. Goodbye – goobbye / “five pens” /v/ become /f/ “fif pens” 2. Dental consonants: alveaolar consonants become dental when followed by a dental sound / ð /, / θ /. Health, eighth, in this. 3. Vowel nasalization: vowels become nasalised when they are followed by a nasal sound… /sang/, /mean/

34 Some phonological rules white bird: bilabial /b/ replaces alveolar /t/ under the influence of the bilabial /b/ gone back: bilabial /m/ replaces alveolar /n/ under the influence of the bilabial /b/ night club: velar /k/ replaces alveolar /t/ under the influence of the velar /k/ has to: voiceless /s/ replaces voiced /z/ under the influence of voiceless /t/ soft snow: alveolar /t/ is omitted under the influence of alveolar /s/ grand mother: the /d/ in /nd/often disappears if followed by a word starting with a nasal.

35 Some phonological rules … cont’d Dissimilation: It causes two neighboring sounds to become much less alike with respect to some features. a- Fricative dissimilation: / θ / changes to / t / following another fricative. The word fifth [ fifθ ] is often pronounced as [ fift], sixth /siksth/ is pronounced [sikst]. In these two examples the fricative / θ / becomes less like an adjacent fricative consonant; it does so through a change in the manner of articulation, thereby becoming a alveolar.

36 Some phonological rules … cont’d Insertion: it causes a segment not present at the phonemic level to be added to the phonetic form of a word. a- voiceless stop insertion: between a nasal and a voiceless fricative, a voiceless stop with the same place of articulation as the nasal is inserted. dance [dænts] dance [dænts] hamster [hæmpstər] hamster [hæmpstər] comfortable [ kəmpftəbl ] comfortable [ kəmpftəbl ]

37 Some phonological rules … cont’d Deletion: It involves elimination of a sound as in the case of unstressed syllables and in casual speech. a- /h/ deletion : this rule would apply to a sentence such as He Handed her his hat [hi hændəd r I z hæt] b- unstressed vowel deletion: a vowel that precedes a liquid consonant in an unstressed syllable may be deleted. police [polis] >>>>>[plis] Believe [bəliv/ >>>>> [bliv]

38 Assimilation in Arabic المماثلة الصوتية أنواع 1. إذا أثر الصوت الاول في بنية الكلمة في الصوت الثاني يكون هذه المماثلة ( تأثير مقبل) assimilation 2. إذا أثر الثاني في الاول يكون (ثأثير مدبر) dissimilation 3. إذا تم ادغام الصوتين المتماثلين يكون (تأثير كلي) complete assimilation 4. إذا لم يتم ادغام الصوتين المتماثلين يكون (تأثير جزئي) 5. إذا لم يفصل بين الصوتين المتماثلين فاصل، صوت ساكن أو حركة، يكون (تأثير متصل) 6. اذا فصل بين الصوتين المتماثلين فاصل يكون (التأثير منفصل)

39 Examples of المماثلة الصوتية الـتأثير المقبل الكلي المتصل تتأثر تاء الافتعال دائما بالدال او الطاء قبلها فتنقلب دالا او طاء مثل : ادترك --> ادّرك ، اطتلب --> اطّلب، تتأثر تاء الافتعال دائما بالدال او الطاء قبلها فتنقلب دالا او طاء مثل : ادترك --> ادّرك ، اطتلب --> اطّلب، اطتلع --> اطّلع : اثرت الطاء المفخمة على التاء المرققة فتماثلتا ففخمت التاء الى طاء ثم ادغمت الطاءان. 2. تتأثر تاء الأفعال غالبا بالذال أو الصاد أو بالضاد قبلها فتنقلب ذالا او صادا او ضادا : اذتكر ---> اذّكر ، اضتجع ---> اضّجع 3- تتأثر الياء الساكنة بالضمة المقيدة قبلها فتتحول لضمة مماثلة وتتحد في ضمة طويلة مثل : مُيْقن ---> موقن ، مُيْسر ---> موسر

40 Examples of المماثلة الصوتية الـتأثير المقبل الجزئي المتصل تتاثر تاء الافتعال بالصاد او الضاد او الزاي قبلها فتنقلب طاء في الحالتين الاولين و تنقلب دالا في الحالة الثالثة، مثلا : تتاثر تاء الافتعال بالصاد او الضاد او الزاي قبلها فتنقلب طاء في الحالتين الاولين و تنقلب دالا في الحالة الثالثة، مثلا : اصتبر ---> اصطبر ، اثرت الصاد المفخمة على التاء المرققة فتحولت الى نظيرتها الطاء المفخمة اصتبر ---> اصطبر ، اثرت الصاد المفخمة على التاء المرققة فتحولت الى نظيرتها الطاء المفخمة اصتفي ----> اصطفى (” ان الله اصطفاه عليكم “) اصتفي ----> اصطفى (” ان الله اصطفاه عليكم “) ازتهر ---> ازدهر ، ازتجر ---> ازدجر ، حيث اثرت الزاي المجهورة في التاء المهموسة فتحولت الى نظيرتها الدال المجهورة وهو تاثر جزئي لانه لم يتم في الادغام ازتهر ---> ازدهر ، ازتجر ---> ازدجر ، حيث اثرت الزاي المجهورة في التاء المهموسة فتحولت الى نظيرتها الدال المجهورة وهو تاثر جزئي لانه لم يتم في الادغام

41 Examples of المماثلة الصوتية الـتأثير المدبر الكلي المتصل اتطهر ---> اطّهر حيث اثرت الطاء المفخمة على نظيرتها التاء المرققة ففخمت التاء لطاء وادغمت الطاءان اتطهر ---> اطّهر حيث اثرت الطاء المفخمة على نظيرتها التاء المرققة ففخمت التاء لطاء وادغمت الطاءان يتذكر ---> يذّكر ” وما يذّكر ألا أولو الألباب “ يتذكر ---> يذّكر ” وما يذّكر ألا أولو الألباب “ يتثاقل ---> يثّاقل ” أثاقلتم في الأرض “ يتثاقل ---> يثّاقل ” أثاقلتم في الأرض “ الـتأثير المدبر الجزئي المتصل تتأثر النون الساكنة بالباء التالية لها فتنقلب الى صوت من مخرج الباء وصوت الميم، ( سميعٌ بصير ) كأنها صارت ” سميعمْ بصير “ حيث تماثلت نون التنوين مع صوت الياء فتحول الباء الى صوت الميم لقرب المخرج والاتفاق في الترقيق ، وكذلك ( من بعد ) ” مم بعد ”( الاقلاب ) تتأثر النون الساكنة بالباء التالية لها فتنقلب الى صوت من مخرج الباء وصوت الميم، ( سميعٌ بصير ) كأنها صارت ” سميعمْ بصير “ حيث تماثلت نون التنوين مع صوت الياء فتحول الباء الى صوت الميم لقرب المخرج والاتفاق في الترقيق ، وكذلك ( من بعد ) ” مم بعد ”( الاقلاب ) نقول بالعامية ( يسحف ) بدلا من ( يزحف ) حيث تأثرت الزاى المجهورة بالحاء المهموسة فقلبت الزاى الى نظيرتها المهموسة وهي حرف السين. نقول بالعامية ( يسحف ) بدلا من ( يزحف ) حيث تأثرت الزاى المجهورة بالحاء المهموسة فقلبت الزاى الى نظيرتها المهموسة وهي حرف السين.


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