1 Sounds: the building blocks of language CA461 Speech Processing 1 Lecture 2.
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1 Sounds: the building blocks of language CA461 Speech Processing 1 Lecture 2
2 Building Blocks I Think of a word Write it down and read the word aloud Without looking at the word, write down how many consonants and vowels are in the word Do the same with the following words: –Do, doo, red, read Do you notice anything?
3 Building Blocks II Now take all the words you have just considered, say them aloud but don’t look at their written forms, simply close your eyes and concentrate on listening to the words. Say them a number of times, slowly if you like. How many distinct sounds make up the words, do and doo? Our next aim is to describe these sounds
4 Phonetics: The Description of Speech Sounds Articulatory Perceptual Symbols Acoustic Will focus on acoustic description (next lecture), but it useful to be familiar with articulatory descriptions, symbols and phonetic alphabets…
5 Articulatory Components 1.Vocal tract (filter) –Oral, pharyngeal, nasal cavities 2.Glottis (glottal source) –Space between vocals folds (cords) –Located in larynx (voicebox) –Anterior (front) of larynx is your Adam’s apple
9 Consonant Classification Voicing/Phonation type Place of Articulation Manner of Production -- Degree of Stricture Velic Position Passage of airflow thru oral cavity
10 Voicing/Phonation type Voiced –Glottis opens and closes rapidly –Male ~100 Hz –Female: ~200 Hz Voiceless/Unvoiced/Devoiced –Glottis remains open Can you find voiced/voiceless pairs? –Hint: Start with a voiced sound, e.g. [z]
11 Place of Articulation Main cavities for airflow Passive articulators Active articulators –Primarily the tongue
25 Phonetic Alphabets IPA Arpabet Sampa Worldbet Exercise: –Choose any word with more than 3 or more syllables –Phonetically transcribe it in IPA and one other phonetic alphabet
26 Broad vs. Narrow Transcription PhoneEnvironmentExampleIPA [ tʰ ] Syllable initial tʰaɪ [ t ]After [ s ] or in reduced syllables stɑrfɪʃ [ ʔ ] Various kʰɪʔn̩ [ ɾ ] Between vowels bʌɾɚ [ t ̚ ] Before consonants or word finally frut ̚kʰeɪk [ t̪ ] Before dental consonants eɪt̪θ [ ]Word finally? pʰæs
27 Next Acoustic phonetics Puzzle for later (after next 2 lectures): –How does vowel height and backness relate to the first two formants?