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WWII & the Holocaust Objective: To analyze and understand the outbreak of WWII in addition to the major players, leaders, and decisive battles.

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Presentation on theme: "WWII & the Holocaust Objective: To analyze and understand the outbreak of WWII in addition to the major players, leaders, and decisive battles."— Presentation transcript:

1 WWII & the Holocaust Objective: To analyze and understand the outbreak of WWII in addition to the major players, leaders, and decisive battles.

2 Overview: WWII( ) deadliest, costliest & largest conflict in history 61 nations in fighting The Axis Powers: Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, & Japan The Allied Powers: Great Brit, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Soviet Union, & the US 1 st Global War (over WWI) million killed (most to half civilians) Genocide- 6 million Jews & 6 million non-Jews in the Holocaust WWII topple nations of Europe

3 Overview: Superpowers-US & the Soviet Union Cold War: new struggle between US & Soviet Union massive wave of decolonization (freedom to African & Asian colonies) Shift of internatl. trade Tech & scientific innovation

4 1.What roles did imperialism, nationalism, and ethnocentrism have? 2.Could WWII have been prevented?

5 “The Road to War” Results from pattern of aggression on part of Nazi GA, Fascist Italy & militaristic Jpn. Aggression, met with weak response from the democracies (US does little to stand up to dictatorships) Appeasement- policy of letting the aggressors have what they wanted, in hope they would demand no more

6 WWII Timeline: 1933: Hitler withdraws from the League of Nations Hitler openly began to rebuild Germany army &navy Mussolini invades Ethiopia (League imposes sanctions but ineffective) Soviet Russia- fearful of GA, allies itself with France both agree to protect Czech & France protect Poland Antifascist cooperation = collective security nd violation of TOV; Hitler sends troops to Rhineland (permanent DMZ- Fr.& GB protest but tale no action) Mussolini completes conquest of Ethiopia Outbreak of the Spanish Civil War: – Francisco Franco’s uprising against Demo. Leaders is supplied with $ and supplies by Hitler and Mussolini – Stalin tried to help Spanish govt. (when Western demo do nothing he loses trust) – Dictator Franco =successful 1935:

7 1937: GA annex Austria in Anschluss union Hitler announces plans to take over Sudetenland (former GA territory with 3 million GA people) Munich Agreement: Mussolini & Hitler met with Chamberlain & Paladier of Brit and Fr. to agree to let GA have Sudetenland but expand no further –Appeasement Stalin & Czech not there- he's angry doesn’t trust GB or France Jpn. & Soviet Union clash in Siberia & Soviets drive them back 1938 In Jpn. Military- controlled govt. Anti-Comintern Pact: signed by GA, Italy, & Jpn. pledging to oppose internatl communism Jpn. Invades China (atrocities – Rape of Nanking) Hitler goes to public with Lebensraum “Living Space” for GA expansion WWII Timeline:

8 GA Takes rest of Czech (foolish Fr. & GB) GA takes W. Lithuania Italy invades Albania Jpn. &USSR fight in Siberia again Hitler claims on Polish territory (Fr. & Brit. Promise to guarantee Poland safety) Nazi-Soviet Pact/ Non-Aggression Pact- Hitler seeks to reach agreement with Stalin b4 invading Poland- therefore agreement keeps USSR neutral & allows for his invasion Sept. 1 st 1939 Hitler’s invasion of Poland 1939

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10 The Major Players: The Axis Powers

11 Leaders of the Axis Powers Germany Adolf Hitler Italy Benito Mussolini Japan Emperor Hirohito

12 The Major Players: The Allied Powers

13 Leaders of the Allied Powers Great Britain Winston Churchill France Charles De Gaulle USA USSR Josef Stalin Franklin D. Roosevelt Harry Truman

14 The Axis Ascendant: During 1 st half of war Axis Powers were winning Only major opposition was Fr. And GB – USSR = neutral (Why?) – US- isolated & wants to stay out Japan extends into Asia & China against Brit, Dutch, & Fr. Colonial possessions in SE Asia

15 New Technology New Technology: Makes war rapid & dynamic Naval aircraft Long-range submarines New Artillery (the tank) Strategic air bombers *** All make war quick but more deadly (civilian population) Jet aircraft & synthetic materials

16 Blitzkrieg, & the Invasion of Poland Blitzkrieg: The new GA method of warfare means “lightning war”- use of tanks, airplanes to rush and knock out enemy territory Its effective: Poland falls within weeks Brit & Fr. Did very little- old strategy of waiting for GA to attack them believes defensive would win Winter named sitzkrieg or phony war

17 German Invasion of Western Europe & the Fall of France April 1940 Hitler’s assault on W. Euro (success) Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, & Netherlands all defeated Fall of France- surrenders within months- Leaves GB to fight GA & Italy alone France’s confidence in the Maginot Line- great border of fortifications to protect them GA sidesteps this

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21 Part II: Japanese Aggression & The Allied Quest for Victory

22 Battle of Britain & Operation Barbarossa Battle of Britain: GA attn on GB Italy heads for Greece, Yugoslavia, & Egypt Attempt to knock GB out of the war- fails (Royal navy protects British Isles) Royal Air Force defends GB GB holds out from its navy, air force and economic aid from US & Canada US is neutral but FDR Lend- lease program of economic assistance kept GB and USSR supplied Eastern Invasions & Operation Barbarossa 1941 Hitler shifts attn to E. Europe- helps clean up Italy’s mess in Greece and N. Africa Hitler wants to invade Soviet Union =Operation Barbarossa (despite non-aggression Pact) June 22, 1941 GA invades Soviet Union 60-75% of GA troops fight E. front GA forces surround Leningrad (USSR 2 nd largest city) Drive into Ukraine & S. Russia- close to Moscow Last min efforts halt GA

23 Japanese Aggression: US imposes sanctions after increased aggression- without steel, oil, & other raw materials from US, Japanese war on Asian mainland would be badly damaged Jpn. Views embargo as an act of war- begin plotting against the US Fighting between China & Jpn Fr, Dutch, British colonial possessions vulnerable Fr. Falls 1940-threaten Indochina Japan Goal: Establish Greater E. Asian Co- Prosperity Sphere (over Chinese coast & all of SE Asia, India, Indochina, & Australia)

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25 Pearl Harbor & Japan: assault on the South Pacific Dec. 7 th 1941 Jpn. Surprise attack on US naval base Pearl Harbor Bomb and invade South Pacific & Philippines 1942 Japan had captured Hong Kong, Indochina, Thailand, part of Burma, the Malaysian Peninsula, Philippines, Indonesia and 100s of small Pacific islands Effect of Japanese attack is to bring US into war both in Pacific and in Europe (GA declared war on US) Japan roused one of world’s largest countries (great human power & resources & most productive economy at time in world)

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27 The Allied Quest for Victory: Shifting Balance of WWII- 2 ND half of war France dropped out; US AND Soviet Union joined Advantages: – Axis: GA & Jpn. Skill & quality of armed forces – Allies- Soviets and US geographic size, human pwr, economies and resources – Longer the war lasted Allies would win (GA fails to take Moscow and Japan fails to cripple America)

28 The Turning Point: Decisive Battles and GA and Japan lost all 3: 1. Midway: (June 1942) a naval battle in which the US navy had destroyed a huge portion of Jpn aircraft carrier 2. El Alamein (fall 1942) the British tunred back drive of Erwin Rommel’s GA tanks toward Egypt & Suez Canal 3. Stalingrad (Aug1942-Feb 1943) clash along the Volga River where Soviets prevent the GA from capturing all of Southern Russia & their oil reserves in the east

29 The Shifting Tide: Allies determine direction and pace of war In Pacific Americans push back Japan Brit and US take control of N. Africa then invade Italy to knock out Fascist govt. June 1944 D- Day invasion (Operation Overlord. Normandy) Brit, French, Canadian and American troops, ships, and aircraft land on coast of France On Land Hitler threats from 3 fronts: – East – Italian peninsula – Western Europe Brit. And Americans neutralized last weapon with which GA had any real chance of threatening war effort- submarine fleet ineffective by 1943 Allies control air British and US bomb GA Europe US bombers pound Japan 1944 (kill civilians)

30 The End of WWII Surrender of Axis 1945 GA gave up Hitler commits suicide April 1930 Jpn continues struggle US navy and marines close in on Jpnese home islands US bombers continue assault US new Pres. Truman (feared an invasion of Jpn, would cost millions of lives) warns Jpn of its new weapon Aug 5thB-29 bomber Enola Gay drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima killing 78,000 instantly & 1000s die later burns/ radiation Jpn, ignores US request for surrender- drop 2 nd atomic bomb on Nagasaki

31 Hiroshima & Nagasaki

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