Presentation on theme: "Tuesday, October 14, 2014 1.Go over rhetorical appeals and devices with Rhetorical Devices Intro 2.Begin looking for rhetorical devices and appeals in."— Presentation transcript:
Tuesday, October 14, 2014 1.Go over rhetorical appeals and devices with Rhetorical Devices Intro 2.Begin looking for rhetorical devices and appeals in Patrick Henry’s Speech to Virginia Convention text. 3. Analyze the structure of Henry’s speech. 4. Annotate Henry’s speech, labeling rhetorical devices, appeals, and structure. Learning Goal: Analyze how Patrick Henry uses rhetorical devices to achieve his purpose.
Puritanism gives way to Rationalism REMEMBER THIS?: Puritans Focus: God Form of Government: Theocracy—Divinely appointed government The American: a hard worker, faithful, spiritual and family-oriented The American’s values: based on his relationship to God and his family. Truth: Acquired through emotional experiences Literature: religious, personal texts, poetry based on God and family
Rationalism Humans can arrive at truth by reasoning (understanding obtained through cause and effect logic) rather than by relying on past authorities, religious faith or intuition.
Puritanism gives way to Rationalism Rationalism Focus: The nation Form of Government: The emergence of democracy The American: intellectual, politically-active, self- made man The American’s values: higher education, political debate, survival of the nation Truth: Acquired through intellectual reasoning Literature: speeches, pamphlets, journals, almanacs, brochures, essays and autobiographies Rhetoric: derived from the theories of Enlightenment philosophers and thinkers
Ethos- credibility of the speaker O Writers/speakers ask the audience to -trust them (intelligence, goodwill and virtue) -believe them -to bear with them -to listen to them O Readers/Audiences must question the speaker’s authority, trustworthiness, motives. --You must consider the writer’s integrity and attitude towards his/her audience.
Ethos—establishing authority/credibility by 1.Demonstrating knowledge about the topic (position, job title, experience, etc.) 2.Establishing common ground with the audience through respect and concern 3.Demonstrating fairness and evenhandedness 4.Displaying confidence
Establishing Confidence and Credibility 5.Presenting yourself in a suitable manner— physical appearance 6.Connecting your beliefs to core principles that are widely respected 7.Using appropriate language for the audience, neither speaking above nor below their capabilities. 8.Citing credible, reliable sources 9.Admitting limitations, exceptions, or weaknesses of your argument. Making these concessions (anticipating the potential rebuttals of your audience) makes the audience belief that you have respect for them and that you have carefully considered your position.
Logos—logic O “word” or “reason” O Rational argument O Logic behind the arguments Examples: -factual evidence for support “Nine out of ten doctors agree…” Examples: statistics, charts, graphs, definitions, surveys,. polls, examples, narratives, personal testimonies etc.
Pathos-emotional appeals O PATHOS—the quality or power of evoking the audience’s emotions O Primarily achieved through the use of strong emotional diction (evocative words) O Powerful images that evoke emotions O Anecdotes —stories O Immediacy contributes to the effectiveness of emotional appeals O Pathos appeals to the heart and to one’s emotions.
Pathos—Examples O Stories or testimonials O Personal anecdotes or stories O Personal connections O Imagery and figurative language that provokes an emotional response O Visual images or words that inspire you to empathize or have compassion towards the idea/topic O Powerful words, phrases, or images that stir up emotion
Imagery--Pathos Imagery is words that appeal to the senses. –Visual –Auditory –Tactile/Emotional –Concrete –Olfactory
Anaphora O Repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses, sentences, or lines. “This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, This other Eden, demi-paradise, This fortress built by Nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war, This happy breed of men, this little world, This precious stone set in the silver sea…” -John of Gaunt in Shakespeare's Richard II (2.1.40-51; 57-60 )
Antithesis O opposition, or contrast of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction. The idea is that they enhance one another, kind of like two halves of the perfect whole: O yin and yang O sweet and sour O Good cop / Bad cop O Sink or swim. O Black or white. O It can't be wrong if it feels so right” -Debbie Boone
Rhetorical Question O A question posed by the speaker or writer not to seek an answer but instead to affirm or deny a point by simply asking the question O Ex. Do I really need to ask you to clean your room again?
Parallelism O Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses. parallelism of words:She tried to make her pastry fluffy, sweet, and delicate. parallelism of phrases: Singing a song or writing a poem is joyous. parallelism of clauses: Perch is inexpensive; cod is cheap; trout is abundant; but salmon is best.
Juxtaposition O is a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another. O Light and dark images O Life and death O Cold and hot O Etc.
Allusion O A reference to mythological, literary, historical, or Biblical person, place or thing.
Biblical Allusion "Son of man, you are living among a rebellious people. They have eyes to see but do not see and ears to hear but do not hear, for they are a rebellious people.” Ezekiel 12:2 HOW IS THIS ALLUSION EFFECTIVE?
PATHOS— Those who can’t see and can’t hear the truth about God will lose their spiritual salvation. Likewise, the colonists who can’t see or hear the truth about what the British are doing will loose their temporal salvation—they will not be free, which equates to death.
Biblical Allusion Jesus Arrested 47 While he was still speaking a crowd came up, and the man who was called Judas, one of the Twelve, was leading them. He approached Jesus to kiss him, 48 but Jesus asked him, “Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?” Luke 22:47-8 HOW IS THIS ALLUSION EFFECTIVE?
Psalm 119:105 Your word is a lamp to my feet... - Online Parallel Bible Psalm 119:105 Your word is a lamp to my feet... - Online Parallel Bible bible.cc/psalms/119-105.htmCached - SimilarCachedSimilar You +1'd this publicly. UndoUndo Your word is a lamp to guide my feet and a light for my path. English Standard... Man needs such a guide, and the Bible is such a guide. Compare the notes at...