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Exam Questions.

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1 Exam Questions

2 The exam Theory paper AQA
2 hour paper with 120 marks 40% of total marks Section A is the design section offering 30 marks Section B covers the rest of the specification for 90 marks Types of questions asked – practise with these types of answer Explain Describe What is meant by Identify Give reasons for your choice

3 1 Question 1 is about researching a product range.
1 (a) Explain how manufacturers could use the Internet when designing and making a new range of hot drinks. (4 marks) 1 (b) What other types of electronic media may be used when researching existing products? (2 marks)

4 1 (a) Explain how manufacturers could use the internet when designing and making a new range of hot drinks. • Research competitors products • Use of e mail / facilities to speed up communication • Analyse existing products/recipes e.g. Identify price range • Nutritional analysis e.g. to find out more about special diets • Packaging simulations • Collect information e.g. images/ data/costings/weights of ingredients • Use websites e.g. Assess popularity of existing products • Identify new ingredients e.g. recipe ideas/product ideas • Sourcing of ingredients Up to four simplistic answers or several detailed , qualified answers (3-4 marks) Several simplistic answers or one detailed (1-2 marks) 4 marks (b) What other types of electronic media may be used when researching existing products? • E mail to contact manufacturers • Digital camera • Digital TV/ TV • CD roms / software programmes • DVD • MP3 • EPOS electronic point of sale • Video/camcorder • Other relevant answers e.g. radio, scanner, telephone, texting • Answers may give examples of use 2 x 1 mark (2 marks) Total for question 6 marks

5 (b) How can manufacturers use computers to gather information about
the food preferences of visitors from other countries? Information from computer: • internet searches / websites • comparative shops • electronic sources e.g. CD roms • market trends • databases • sales figures • conferencing • production of questionnaires, surveys • clear presentation of results / use of Word processing / DTP / graphical images detailed relevant answers 4 marks a mixture of full or simplistic answers 2-3 marks simplistic answer 1 mark (4 marks)

6 2 (a) (i) Why is it important to research existing food products before starting to design new
(3 marks) 2 (a) (ii) Describe ways in which a computer could be used to research existing food products.

7 2. (a)(i) Why is it important to research existing products before starting to
design new products? To see what is already on market/on sale Ensure what you make will meet with current consumer needs To identify good features you will want to keep So you can improve on/identify weaknesses of products already on sale. Get inspiration for new product/use customer reviews Identify prices Identify competition Look for gap in the market

8 A computer could be useful to research existing products :
2. (a)(ii) A computer could be useful to research existing products : using internet searches/websites Spread sheet storage/ interrogation of sales figures  other suppliers/manufacturers Looking at images of food products on sale as secondary research Greater capacity for searching the market Comparative product analysis is easier/quicker Using on line surveys/questionnaires/ with target consumers carrying out nutritional analysis on products working out potential costs/ scaling up implications Saves on travel time/expense give advantage Facility to show research results neatly presented Information/data gathered can be stored for later use Can predict future trends More accurate than human searches

9 (ii) meeting the cultural needs of competitors from other countries
• cultural flavours • traditional recipes and ingredients • may give examples of specific spices / flavours used • foods linked with specific country e.g. British . potatoes, Chinese . rice • ingredients used to cater for different religious beliefs, e.g. halal or kosher meats • no meat content for vegetarian consumers due to religious beliefs e.g. Hindus no beef, Muslims no pork a mixture of full or simplistic answers 2 marks simplistic answer 1 mark (2 marks)

10 (b) (i) Name one method of sensory testing 1 mark (ii) Describe how this sensory test is carried out. 5 marks

11 (b) (i) Any named form of testing e.g. difference tests, ranking tests, rating tests, profiling. ( Do not accept preference, blindfold or taste testing) (ii) Place where carried out • Type of people to ask / target group / audience/public • Number of people asked • Fair testing considerations e.g. sips of water, quiet area, booths, small samples, random labelling • How results are recorded • Analysis of results / data • Conclusions drawn from results • How results may benefit future product design

12 (iv) Explain how the results of sensory testing are used by
(iii) Describe how a computer can be used to record the results of sensory testing. (iv) Explain how the results of sensory testing are used by manufacturers.

13 Answers (iv) Explain how the results of sensory testing are used by manufacturers. • To compare different design ideas • To identify consumer preferences • To compare to other manufacturers/brands • To identify market trends • To compare product to specification • To improve product • To develop new products • Conclusion drawn form results •to benefit future product design • to plan further testing / trialling with target consumers • to compare results with previous product testing • Other relevant answers (iii) Good answers will include reference to some of the following methods of presenting results • Charts • Labelled graphics • Pie charts • Graphs / grids • Charts / bars • Radar charts/profiles • Spreadsheets / excel • Power point presentations / slideshows • Digital images / photographs • Word processed / written report

14 3. Well risen loaf of bread
Name the ingredients that are most suitable for use in each of the products below. Give a detailed reason for your choices. 1. Fat for pastry 2. Sponge cake 3. Well risen loaf of bread

15 Understanding ingredients in products
Sponge Cake Choice: sugar; castor sugar (1 mark) Reasons: •Finer grain • Easier to cream • Smoother texture • Larger grains may give speckled texture Fat for pastry: Choice: fat butter / margarine lard / mixture Reasons: • Adds colour • Adds nutritive value / vit A D • Adds to shelf life • Shortening properties

16 Understanding ingredients in products
Well risen loaf of bread Choice: Strong wholemeal Reasons: • Contains protein ‘gluten’ • Gluten stretches to hold CO2 produced by the yeast • Gluten coagulates to form the structure of bread. • To improve elasticity • To assist rising / light open texture (ii) Explain how flour thickens a white sauce. When heated – • Starch grains absorb the liquid Swell • Eventually burst and thicken the mixture • Causing gelatinisation to take place Any two points (2 marks) One point given (1 mark)

17 4 (b) (i) Complete the table below to show the causes of each problem and how each problem may be prevented. Problem Cause Prevention The chicken is moist and pink inside An insect is found in the rice before cooking

18 Problem Cause Prevention The chicken is moist and pink inside insufficient cooking -not fully defrosted before use -temp too low -cooking time too short -control checks not completed check fully defrosted before use -sufficient cooking time -relevant cooking temp -use of food probe to check cooking An insect is found in the rice before cooking -Poor hygiene standards -Rice not covered during storage -Incorrect storage -Damaged packaging -insufficient control checks check rice before -Use insect repellent -Routine hygiene inspections -regular hygiene -visual checks

19 4 (a) How are these ingredients suitable for consumers choosing a healthy option product?
Wholemeal flour – high fibre, energy, iron, Vit B • Sweeteners – reduced sugar content • Polyunsaturated margarine – lower in saturated fats, heart disease, lower in cholesterol • Skimmed milk, Low fat yoghurt – lower in fat, lower cholesterol, lower calories • Eggs – protein, Vit A D, iron. • Blueberries – fruit portion towards 5 a day, some Vitamin C, fibre • Information on health links may be credited e.g. heart disease, dental caries, obesity, digestion, cancer etc

20 (b) What are the advantages of using tunnel ovens when baking
batches of biscuits? consistency of outcome • process can be timed accurately • even colour for biscuits • CAM more efficient than using human workforce/to make large quantities • less human input due to computer control/ less human error • different temperatures can be set for different stages of production • cost effective after initial set up • some tunnel ovens lead into cooling towers at the end for rapid cooling / saving time • continuous flow for large scale production

21 7 (a) Why is fresh cream classed as a high risk food?

22 7 Why is fresh cream classed as a high risk food? • Protein food e.g. dairy product • Risk of contamination if not pasteurised • Moist • Short shelf life • Easily contaminated if not kept at correct temperature • Provides ideal conditions for micro organisms/bacteria to develop/may cause food poisoning 3 x 1 mark (3 marks)

23 5 Question 5 is about testing new products.
This is from a recipe for fruit slices. Ingredients: 150 g wholemeal flour 100 g white flour 50 g soft brown sugar 125 g polyunsaturated margarine 200 g apricots 5 (a) (i) Which ingredients help to give a golden colour to the fruit slice? (2 marks) 5 (a) (ii) Describe one way of developing the fruit slice product to improve the flavour.

24 5 (a) (iii) Describe two ways of developing the fruit slice product to improve the texture.
(4 marks) 5 (a) (iv) Describe one way of developing the fruit slice to give an appealing, quality finish. (2 marks)

25 5 (a) (i) Which ingredients help to give a golden colour to the fruit slice? • Wholemeal flour • Soft brown sugar • Apricots • Polyunsaturated margarine (ii) Describe one way of developing the fruit slice product to improve the flavour. • Addition of different fruits, more fruits or mixture of fruits, e.g. cranberries • Any other idea that adds ‘fruit’ flavour, essences • Addition of spices e.g. nutmeg, cinnamon • Addition of sweetness • Carry out further sensory testing

26 (iii) Describe two ways of developing the fruit slice product to
improve the texture. • Addition of nuts, coconut, seeds • Named type of texture identified e.g. crunchy, soft, sticky • Oats in place of wholemeal flour • Any other idea that adds ‘crunchy’ • Cook for correct time to give crunch • Reference to the method of making e.g. rubbing in correctly • Dried and fresh fruit added • Different types/quantities of ingredients used e.g. fats, sugars, flours to change outcome • Size of ingredients e.g. grated v chopped

27 (iv) Describe one way of developing the fruit slices to give an
appealing, quality finish. • Sugar topping • Pinched edges • Egg wash • Milk wash • Forked patterns on top • Icing sugar dredged • Chopped nuts. seeds topping, e.g. almonds • Add ready prepared decorations • Add fresh or dried fruit toppings • Add fruit glaze, yoghurt topping, flavoured cream cheese etc. • Add drizzled chocolate, jams, glace icing, named fruit, coloured…

28 (ii) Explain what happens to the egg whites when they are
whisked. (iii) Explain what happens to the whisked egg whites when they are cooked.

29 (ii) Explain what happens to the egg whites when they are
whisked. • A foam is formed when air is mixed into egg white • egg protein stretches to hold larger air bubbles • aeration takes place • surface tension breaks down • egg white (albumin) denatures/breaks down • the foam becomes white, stiff, smooth and light textured • heat generated from whisking partially coagulates mixture. (iii) Explain what happens to the whisked egg whites when they are cooked. • foam remains stable (does not rise) • gives fine, solid mesh structure • protein coagulates/sets • coagulates at 60C • longer time at lower temperature gives a whiter, drier meringue. • shorter time at higher temperature gives a browner, sticky and pliable meringue.

30 7 (a) What is meant by a hazard in the food industry?
• Anything that can cause harm/damage to the consumer/product. May be • chemical /e.g. cleaning materials • biological / e.g. microbiological agents • physical hazard /e.g. glass, hair Qualified answer or two simplistic answers ( 2 marks ) Simplistic answer ( 1 mark ) (2 marks)

31 Factors affecting choice of foods:
Each answer may refer to: • Age • Gender • Culture / tradition • Lifestyle • Type of sports event / endurance / hydration levels • Indoor or outdoor events • Personal preferences / likes / dislikes / appeal / interest • Special dietary needs e.g. vegetarian, weight control, allergies • Cost of foods on sale • Amount of energy needed for event • Season of year • Hot or cold foods preferred • Nutritional value of foods • Advertising • Size of portion • Ease of use

32 7 (iii) Main ingredients and reasons for use: Flour for pastry
Fat (named white / lard / butter / margarine) • flavour • colour • nutritive value • keeping quality enhanced • coats flour / shortening texture / adds richness Salt • develops flavour • flaky: gluten strengthened Lemon juice • strengthens gluten • counteracts fat Ingredients for filling, finish may include reasons for use as appropriate: • texture • enriching • adding moisture / decorate / garnish / suitable accompaniment to make dish nutritionally balanced add nutritional value . any named nutrient acceptable • shortcrust: soft plain has low gluten content for short crumb • flaky; strong plain has high gluten for stretchy dough, rolling. folding into layers.. • forms structure • dextrinises (browns) when baked at high temperatures Flour for sauces etc • gelatinisation Water • binds rubbed in fats and flour together • improves ease of rolling out/ moisture • develops gluten when mixed with strong flour • causes starch to gelatinise • flaky: combines with gluten for stretchy dough.

33 Problem Cause Prevention Pastry is dry and breaks Incorrect proportions of ingredients • Over handling • Overcooking / time / temp • Not used in time Weigh accurately • Monitor working temp / keep cool / moist • Training staff • Quality control checks • Cover before use Filling leaks out Incorrect seal • Not used water to join edges • Too much filling / insufficient pastry • Pastry too thin / torn Accurate weighing of filling • Training of staff • Sealing of edges Shell in the filling Lack of visual • Poor supplier checks not completed • Poor quality shellfish Check on suppliers • Clear specification • Visual check • Regular monitoring Sauce is thin and runny Insufficient cooking temp / temp • Insufficient cooking time • Inaccurate proportions • Too much liquid • Not enough sauce to thicken Pale product Incorrect choice of fat in pastry • Not finished with egg / milk • Not cooked long enough / hot enough Cook for longer / higher • Add finishing technique • Change to butter / margarine instead of white fats 5 x 1 mark 5 x

34 4. (b) Describe ways of adding a quality finish to a batch of fruit loaves.
Identification of when finish applied : before or after cooking Brush on beaten egg glaze/ with pastry brush /to give shiny or glossy finish. Egg spray for large scale Sugar solution –melt sugar in water –cool- brush on Brush with milk glaze before sprinkling with sugar Brush top sprinkle spices e.g. cinnamon, grated zest sprinkled on before cooking Make cuts across the top before cooking to give interesting textures/shapes/pattern for visual appeal Add decoration e.g. fruits, crystallised/caramelised sugar, peel etc. Add icing e.g. Chelsea buns, iced buns

35 5. (a)(i) Explain why consumers choose to buy takeaway products instead of
making the food themselves. Lack of skills Lack of time and effort / busy lifestyles make takeaways convenient as instant foods little cooking or preparation needed. Quick and easy Availability of take away foods Prefer tastes of takeaway Convenient for gatherings/special occasions/parties Wide selection of multicultural options available Consumer may lack skills needed /Food expertly cooked by specialist chefs with knowledge of special equipment/methods etc. Some takeaways specialise in different dietary needs and can be helpful for consumers dealing with different needs. E.g gluten free. Takeaways may prove cheaper than buying all ingredients needed. less clearing up/washing up Other relevant answers

36 5. (a)(ii) Explain some of the disadvantages of takeaway foods.
Often seen as unhealthy/often high in fat and salt Some takeaways thought to contribute towards health problems/not helpful for consumers wanting healthier options Packaging to deal with Price considerations: Expensive to buy, but some can be cheaper than buying individual ingredients to make at home. Often use artificial additives May need to travel to buy May not have what you like No control over outcomes/ do not know what goes into the food Often use large number of additives/e numbers which can be detrimental to health Cannot guarantee freshness/quality May cause food poisoning if not cooked/stored/reheated safely or hygienically No control over source of foods/suppliers Some people e.g. young generation are over reliant on takeaways and therefore do not learn cooking skills.

37 (c) Explain why some control checks are done by computers.
• saves manufacturer time • less staff • more reliable / accurate / consistent • less human error • easier for monitoring • alerted immediately if problems • credit specific examples e.g. for temp, time, control, weight checks, PH, metal detection

38 7 (a) Explain why colour coded equipment is used when preparing
beefburgers. • Prevents cross contamination • Colour coded knives / boards allow different foods to be prepared separately • May give colours used for raw meat (red) cooked burger (yellow) / vegetables (brown) / bread (white) / fish (blue) / salad (green) • Keeps foods apart so that bacterial infection not at risk • High risk foods kept separately Detailed answer or mixture of simplistic / well explained answers 3 marks Simplistic answers lacking detail 1-2 marks (3 marks)

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