2 The exam Theory paper AQA 2 hour paper with 120 marks40% of total marksSection A is the design section offering 30 marksSection B covers the rest of the specification for 90 marksTypes of questions asked – practise with these types of answerExplainDescribeWhat is meant byIdentifyGive reasons for your choice
3 1 Question 1 is about researching a product range. 1 (a) Explain how manufacturers could use the Internet when designing and making a newrange of hot drinks.(4 marks)1 (b) What other types of electronic media may be used when researching existing products?(2 marks)
4 1(a) Explain how manufacturers could use the internet whendesigning and making a new range of hot drinks.• Research competitors products• Use of e mail / facilities to speed up communication• Analyse existing products/recipes e.g. Identify price range• Nutritional analysis e.g. to find out more about special diets• Packaging simulations• Collect information e.g. images/ data/costings/weights ofingredients• Use websites e.g. Assess popularity of existing products• Identify new ingredients e.g. recipe ideas/product ideas• Sourcing of ingredientsUp to four simplistic answers or several detailed , qualified answers (3-4 marks)Several simplistic answers or one detailed (1-2 marks)4 marks(b) What other types of electronic media may be used whenresearching existing products?• E mail to contact manufacturers• Digital camera• Digital TV/ TV• CD roms / software programmes• DVD• MP3• EPOS electronic point of sale• Video/camcorder• Other relevant answers e.g. radio, scanner, telephone,texting• Answers may give examples of use2 x 1 mark (2 marks)Total for question 6 marks
5 (b) How can manufacturers use computers to gather information about the food preferences of visitors from other countries?Information from computer:•• internet searches / websites• comparative shops• electronic sources e.g. CD roms• market trends• databases• sales figures• conferencing• production of questionnaires, surveys• clear presentation of results / use of Word processing / DTP /graphical imagesdetailed relevant answers 4 marksa mixture of full or simplistic answers 2-3 markssimplistic answer 1 mark(4 marks)
6 2 (a) (i) Why is it important to research existing food products before starting to design new (3 marks)2 (a) (ii) Describe ways in which a computer could be used to research existing foodproducts.
7 2. (a)(i) Why is it important to research existing products before starting to design new products?To see what is already on market/on saleEnsure what you make will meet with currentconsumer needsTo identify good features you will want to keepSo you can improve on/identify weaknesses ofproducts already on sale.Get inspiration for new product/use customer reviewsIdentify pricesIdentify competitionLook for gap in the market
8 A computer could be useful to research existing products : 2. (a)(ii)A computer could be useful to research existing products :using internet searches/websitesSpread sheet storage/ interrogation of sales figures other suppliers/manufacturersLooking at images of food products on sale as secondaryresearchGreater capacity for searching the marketComparative product analysis is easier/quickerUsing on line surveys/questionnaires/ with targetconsumerscarrying out nutritional analysis on productsworking out potential costs/ scaling up implicationsSaves on travel time/expense give advantageFacility to show research results neatly presentedInformation/data gathered can be stored for later useCan predict future trendsMore accurate than human searches
9 (ii) meeting the cultural needs of competitors from other countries • cultural flavours• traditional recipes and ingredients• may give examples of specific spices / flavours used• foods linked with specific country e.g. British . potatoes,Chinese . rice• ingredients used to cater for different religious beliefs, e.g. halal orkosher meats• no meat content for vegetarian consumers due to religious beliefse.g. Hindus no beef, Muslims no porka mixture of full or simplistic answers 2 markssimplistic answer 1 mark(2 marks)
10 (b) (i)Name one method of sensory testing1 mark(ii) Describe how this sensory test is carried out.5 marks
11 (b) (i)Any named form of testing e.g. difference tests, ranking tests, ratingtests, profiling. ( Do not accept preference, blindfold or taste testing)(ii)Place where carried out• Type of people to ask / target group / audience/public• Number of people asked• Fair testing considerations e.g. sips of water, quiet area,booths, small samples, random labelling• How results are recorded• Analysis of results / data• Conclusions drawn from results• How results may benefit future product design
12 (iv) Explain how the results of sensory testing are used by (iii) Describe how a computer can be used to record the results ofsensory testing.(iv) Explain how the results of sensory testing are used bymanufacturers.
13 Answers(iv) Explain how the results of sensory testing are used by manufacturers.• To compare different design ideas• To identify consumer preferences• To compare to other manufacturers/brands• To identify market trends• To compare product to specification• To improve product• To develop new products• Conclusion drawn form results•to benefit future product design• to plan further testing / trialling with target consumers• to compare results with previous product testing• Other relevant answers(iii) Good answers will include reference to some of the followingmethods of presenting results• Charts• Labelled graphics• Pie charts• Graphs / grids• Charts / bars• Radar charts/profiles• Spreadsheets / excel• Power point presentations / slideshows• Digital images / photographs• Word processed / written report
14 3. Well risen loaf of bread Name the ingredients that are most suitable for use in each ofthe products below.Give a detailed reason for your choices.1. Fat for pastry2. Sponge cake3. Well risen loaf of bread
15 Understanding ingredients in products Sponge Cake Choice: sugar; castor sugar (1 mark) Reasons: •Finer grain • Easier to cream • Smoother texture • Larger grains may give speckled textureFat for pastry:Choice: fat butter / margarine lard / mixtureReasons:• Adds colour• Adds nutritive value / vit A D• Adds to shelf life• Shortening properties
16 Understanding ingredients in products Well risen loaf of breadChoice: Strong wholemealReasons:• Contains protein ‘gluten’• Gluten stretches to hold CO2 produced by the yeast• Gluten coagulates to form the structure of bread.• To improve elasticity• To assist rising / light open texture(ii) Explain how flour thickens a white sauce.When heated –• Starch grains absorb the liquidSwell• Eventually burst and thicken the mixture• Causing gelatinisation to take placeAny two points (2 marks)One point given (1 mark)
17 4 (b) (i) Complete the table below to show the causes of each problem and how each problem may be prevented.ProblemCausePreventionThe chicken ismoist and pinkinsideAn insect is foundin the rice beforecooking
18 ProblemCausePreventionThe chicken ismoist and pinkinsideinsufficient cooking-not fully defrostedbefore use-temp too low-cooking time tooshort-control checks notcompletedcheck fullydefrosted beforeuse-sufficient cookingtime-relevant cookingtemp-use of food probeto check cookingAn insect is foundin the rice beforecooking-Poor hygienestandards-Rice not coveredduring storage-Incorrect storage-Damagedpackaging-insufficient controlcheckscheck rice before-Use insectrepellent-Routine hygieneinspections-regular hygiene-visual checks
19 4 (a) How are these ingredients suitable for consumers choosing a healthy option product? Wholemeal flour – high fibre, energy, iron, Vit B• Sweeteners – reduced sugar content• Polyunsaturated margarine – lower in saturated fats, heartdisease, lower in cholesterol• Skimmed milk, Low fat yoghurt – lower in fat, lowercholesterol, lower calories• Eggs – protein, Vit A D, iron.• Blueberries – fruit portion towards 5 a day, some Vitamin C,fibre• Information on health links may be credited e.g. heartdisease, dental caries, obesity, digestion, cancer etc
20 (b) What are the advantages of using tunnel ovens when baking batches of biscuits?consistency of outcome• process can be timed accurately• even colour for biscuits• CAM more efficient than using human workforce/to makelarge quantities• less human input due to computer control/ less human error• different temperatures can be set for different stages ofproduction• cost effective after initial set up• some tunnel ovens lead into cooling towers at the end forrapid cooling / saving time• continuous flow for large scale production
21 7(a) Why is fresh cream classed as a high risk food?
22 7Why is fresh cream classed as a high risk food?• Protein food e.g. dairy product• Risk of contamination if not pasteurised• Moist• Short shelf life• Easily contaminated if not kept at correct temperature• Provides ideal conditions for micro organisms/bacteria todevelop/may cause food poisoning3 x 1 mark (3 marks)
23 5 Question 5 is about testing new products. This is from a recipe for fruit slices.Ingredients: 150 g wholemeal flour100 g white flour50 g soft brown sugar125 g polyunsaturated margarine200 g apricots5 (a) (i) Which ingredients help to give a golden colour to the fruit slice?(2 marks)5 (a) (ii) Describe one way of developing the fruit slice product to improve the flavour.
24 5 (a) (iii) Describe two ways of developing the fruit slice product to improve the texture. (4 marks)5 (a) (iv) Describe one way of developing the fruit slice to give an appealing, quality finish.(2 marks)
25 5(a)(i) Which ingredients help to give a golden colour to the fruitslice?• Wholemeal flour• Soft brown sugar• Apricots• Polyunsaturated margarine(ii) Describe one way of developing the fruit slice product toimprove the flavour.• Addition of different fruits, more fruits or mixture of fruits,e.g. cranberries• Any other idea that adds ‘fruit’ flavour, essences• Addition of spices e.g. nutmeg, cinnamon• Addition of sweetness• Carry out further sensory testing
26 (iii) Describe two ways of developing the fruit slice product to improve the texture.• Addition of nuts, coconut, seeds• Named type of texture identified e.g. crunchy, soft, sticky• Oats in place of wholemeal flour• Any other idea that adds ‘crunchy’• Cook for correct time to give crunch• Reference to the method of making e.g. rubbing in correctly• Dried and fresh fruit added• Different types/quantities of ingredients used e.g. fats,sugars, flours to change outcome• Size of ingredients e.g. grated v chopped
27 (iv) Describe one way of developing the fruit slices to give an appealing, quality finish.• Sugar topping• Pinched edges• Egg wash• Milk wash• Forked patterns on top• Icing sugar dredged• Chopped nuts. seeds topping, e.g. almonds• Add ready prepared decorations• Add fresh or dried fruit toppings• Add fruit glaze, yoghurt topping, flavoured cream cheeseetc.• Add drizzled chocolate, jams, glace icing, named fruit,coloured…
28 (ii) Explain what happens to the egg whites when they are whisked.(iii) Explain what happens to the whisked egg whites when theyare cooked.
29 (ii) Explain what happens to the egg whites when they are whisked.• A foam is formed when air is mixed into egg white• egg protein stretches to hold larger air bubbles• aeration takes place• surface tension breaks down• egg white (albumin) denatures/breaks down• the foam becomes white, stiff, smooth and light textured• heat generated from whisking partially coagulatesmixture.(iii) Explain what happens to the whisked egg whites when theyare cooked.• foam remains stable (does not rise)• gives fine, solid mesh structure• protein coagulates/sets• coagulates at 60C• longer time at lower temperature gives a whiter, driermeringue.• shorter time at higher temperature gives a browner, stickyand pliable meringue.
30 7 (a) What is meant by a hazard in the food industry? • Anything that can cause harm/damage to theconsumer/product.May be• chemical /e.g. cleaning materials• biological / e.g. microbiological agents• physical hazard /e.g. glass, hairQualified answer or two simplistic answers ( 2 marks )Simplistic answer ( 1 mark )(2 marks)
31 Factors affecting choice of foods: Each answer may refer to:• Age• Gender• Culture / tradition• Lifestyle• Type of sports event / endurance / hydration levels• Indoor or outdoor events• Personal preferences / likes / dislikes / appeal / interest• Special dietary needs e.g. vegetarian, weight control, allergies• Cost of foods on sale• Amount of energy needed for event• Season of year• Hot or cold foods preferred• Nutritional value of foods• Advertising• Size of portion• Ease of use
32 7 (iii) Main ingredients and reasons for use: Flour for pastry Fat (named white / lard / butter / margarine)• flavour• colour• nutritive value• keeping quality enhanced• coats flour / shortening texture / adds richnessSalt• develops flavour• flaky: gluten strengthenedLemon juice• strengthens gluten• counteracts fatIngredients for filling, finish may include reasons for use as appropriate:• texture• enriching• adding moisture / decorate / garnish / suitable accompaniment to make dish nutritionally balancedadd nutritional value . any named nutrient acceptable• shortcrust: soft plain has low gluten content for short crumb• flaky; strong plain has high gluten for stretchy dough, rolling.folding into layers..• forms structure• dextrinises (browns) when baked at high temperaturesFlour for sauces etc• gelatinisationWater• binds rubbed in fats and flour together• improves ease of rolling out/ moisture• develops gluten when mixed with strong flour• causes starch to gelatinise• flaky: combines with gluten for stretchy dough.
33 ProblemCausePreventionPastry is dry andbreaksIncorrectproportions ofingredients• Over handling• Overcooking /time / temp• Not used in timeWeigh accurately• Monitor workingtemp / keep cool /moist• Training staff• Quality controlchecks• Cover before useFilling leaks outIncorrect seal• Not used water tojoin edges• Too much filling /insufficient pastry• Pastry too thin /tornAccurate weighingof filling• Training of staff• Sealing of edgesShell in the fillingLack of visual• Poor supplierchecks notcompleted• Poor qualityshellfishCheck on suppliers• Clear specification• Visual check• RegularmonitoringSauce is thin andrunnyInsufficientcooking temp /temp• Insufficientcooking time• Inaccurateproportions• Too much liquid• Not enough sauceto thickenPale productIncorrect choice offat in pastry• Not finished withegg / milk• Not cooked longenough / hotenoughCook forlonger / higher• Add finishingtechnique• Change tobutter / margarineinstead of whitefats5 x 1 mark 5 x
34 4. (b) Describe ways of adding a quality finish to a batch of fruit loaves. Identification of when finish applied : before or after cookingBrush on beaten egg glaze/ with pastry brush /to give shiny orglossy finish.Egg spray for large scaleSugar solution –melt sugar in water –cool- brush onBrush with milk glaze before sprinkling with sugarBrush top sprinkle spices e.g. cinnamon, grated zest sprinkled onbefore cookingMake cuts across the top before cooking to give interestingtextures/shapes/pattern for visual appealAdd decoration e.g. fruits, crystallised/caramelised sugar, peeletc.Add icing e.g. Chelsea buns, iced buns
35 5. (a)(i) Explain why consumers choose to buy takeaway products instead of making the food themselves.Lack of skillsLack of time and effort / busy lifestyles make takeawaysconvenient as instant foods little cooking or preparation needed.Quick and easyAvailability of take away foodsPrefer tastes of takeawayConvenient for gatherings/special occasions/partiesWide selection of multicultural options availableConsumer may lack skills needed /Food expertly cooked byspecialist chefs with knowledge of special equipment/methods etc.Some takeaways specialise in different dietary needs and can behelpful for consumers dealing with different needs. E.g gluten free.Takeaways may prove cheaper than buying all ingredients needed.less clearing up/washing upOther relevant answers
36 5. (a)(ii) Explain some of the disadvantages of takeaway foods. Often seen as unhealthy/often high in fat and saltSome takeaways thought to contribute towards healthproblems/not helpful for consumers wanting healthier optionsPackaging to deal withPrice considerations: Expensive to buy, but some can be cheaperthan buying individual ingredients to make at home.Often use artificial additivesMay need to travel to buyMay not have what you likeNo control over outcomes/ do not know what goes into the foodOften use large number of additives/e numbers which can bedetrimental to healthCannot guarantee freshness/qualityMay cause food poisoning if not cooked/stored/reheated safely orhygienicallyNo control over source of foods/suppliersSome people e.g. young generation are over reliant on takeawaysand therefore do not learn cooking skills.
37 (c) Explain why some control checks are done by computers. • saves manufacturer time• less staff• more reliable / accurate / consistent• less human error• easier for monitoring• alerted immediately if problems• credit specific examples e.g. for temp, time, control, weightchecks, PH, metal detection
38 7 (a) Explain why colour coded equipment is used when preparing beefburgers.• Prevents cross contamination• Colour coded knives / boards allow different foods to be preparedseparately• May give colours used for raw meat (red) cooked burger (yellow)/ vegetables (brown) / bread (white) / fish (blue) / salad (green)• Keeps foods apart so that bacterial infection not at risk• High risk foods kept separatelyDetailed answer or mixture of simplistic / well explained answers 3 marksSimplistic answers lacking detail 1-2 marks(3 marks)