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An overview Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011 Heal 4002 Intro Health Knowledge.

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Presentation on theme: "An overview Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011 Heal 4002 Intro Health Knowledge."— Presentation transcript:

1 An overview Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011 Heal 4002 Intro Health Knowledge

2  To understand the functions of the male and female reproductive systems  To be able to make responsible choices regarding our own sexual health  To be able to describe some of the contraceptive choices available  To be aware of reproductive options  To have an overview of pregnancy & childbirth Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

3 2 major groups of structures: External organs – collectively known as vulva Internal organs -vagina -uterus -fallopian tubes -ovaries Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

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6  Menarche – between 9 – 17 years  Ovaries produce oestrogens and progesterone  Oestrogen – regulates menstrual cycle  Progesterone – prepares endometrium for pregnancy  Average menstrual cycle lasts around 28 days Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

7  Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)  Tender breasts  Food cravings  Fatigue  Irritability  Depression  Dysmenorrhea  Menstrual cramps  Nausea & vomiting  Toxic Shock Syndrome Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

8  generally occurs between 40 – 60  Cessation of menstruation  Results in decreases oestrogen levels  Symptoms include dryness, hot flushes, headaches etc  ? HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy) Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

9 2 major groups of structures:  External organs  Penis  Scrotum  Internal organs  Testes  Epididymides  Vas deferens  urethra Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

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11 Conception = the fertilisation of an ovum by a sperm. 3 conditions necessary: 1. A viable egg (ovum) 2. A viable sperm 3. Access to the egg by the sperm Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

12 Contra – against ; Conception –fertilization Contraception = methods of preventing conception Categories: 1. Barrier methods – block the egg and sperm from joining 2. Hormonal methods  Prevent ovulation  Thicken cervical mucus  Prevent fertilised egg from implanting Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

13  Prevent sperm from reaching the egg by using a physical/chemical barrier during intercourse 1. Male condom  may be used with spermicides  avoid mineral oil.  98% effective  80%-90% reduction in STI’s with latex condoms 2. Female Condom 3. Spermacides 4. Diaphragm, cervical cap, sponge Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

14 = birth control that contains synthetic oestrogen and/or progesterone  Alters biochemistry preventing ovulation  Produce changes preventing sperm reaching the egg 1. Oral Contraceptive 2. Depo-Provera Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

15 IUD = intrauterine device  99% effective  Stays in place between 5-10 years  Does not protect against STD’s  Not recommended for nulliparous women  (women who’ve never given birth) Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

16  Coitus interruptus (withdrawal)  Abstinence  Fertility awareness  Cervical mucus method  Body temperature method  Calendar method Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

17  Female sterilisation  Tubal ligation  Essure  Hysterectomy  Male sterilisation  Vasectomy Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

18  Comfort  Convenience  Risk of STI’s  Future plans for children  Effect of unplanned pregnancy  Religious and moral values  Cost  Health factors Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

19  Pro-choice: women’s right to choose  Pro-life: fetus has rights and must be protected  Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

20  TOP (termination of pregnancy)  Abortion is legal in New Zealand for women of any age, if two certifying consultants agree that the pregnancy will seriously harm a woman's physical or mental health.  The Contraception, Sterilisation and Abortion Act 1977 Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

21  Maternal Health  Stop alcohol, smoking, drugs (first 3mths crucial)  Reduce caffeine  Eat well & exercise  Avoid radiation and chemicals  Folic acid  Good antenatal care  Amniocentesis  HCG Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

22  40 weeks  3 trimesters  Embryo  Foetus (after 3 rd month)  placenta Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

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24  ‘waters breaking’  Episiotomy  Caesarean section (C-section; caesar)  Postpartum depression  Colostrum – breast feeding  Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

25  Pre-eclampsia  High blood pressure  Protein in urine  Oedema  Eclampsia – seizures; strokes  Miscarriage  Ectopic Pregnancy  Stillbirth  SIDS Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

26  Endometriosis  PID  Low sperm count  10% of infertility cases have no known cause  Fertility drugs  ART e.g. IVF, AID  Surrogacy  Adoption  tm tm Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011

27  Functions of the male and female reproductive systems  Responsible choices regarding sexual health  Contraceptive choices available  Reproductive options  Overview of pregnancy & childbirth Vivienne Josephs Semester 2, 2011


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