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5.1: The Cell Cycle Mitosis: cell division that results in duplicate copy of an original cell containing the exact amount of genetic information. Happens.

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Presentation on theme: "5.1: The Cell Cycle Mitosis: cell division that results in duplicate copy of an original cell containing the exact amount of genetic information. Happens."— Presentation transcript:

1 5.1: The Cell Cycle Mitosis: cell division that results in duplicate copy of an original cell containing the exact amount of genetic information. Happens in all somatic cells A cell’s total inherited amount of DNA is called its genome.

2 The Cell Cycle Interphase  Mitosis  Cytokinesis Interphase: the growth phase in which cells make new molecules to increase its volume and mass Further subdivided into the G1, S, and G2 phases –G1 phase: Gap 1  Rapid growth and metabolic activity –S phase: Synthesis phase  DNA synthesis and replication –G2 phase: Gap 2  Centrioles replicate, cell prepares for cell division

3 Mitosis Division of the cell’s nucleus where the daughter cells receive the exact number of chromosomes and genetic makeup as the parent cell Consists of the four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

4 Stages of Mitosis 1.(Interphase) 2.Prophase 3.Metaphase 4.Anaphase 5.Telophase These 5 stages can also be subdivided into early and late stages. ex: Early telophase, late telophase

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6 ycle.htm

7 Interphase During this time, the nucleus is NOT actively dividing The growth phase in which cells make new molecules to increase its volume and mass Chromosomes are spread out in a delicate network called chromatin Replication of chromosomes and centrioles

8 Prophase Centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus Chromosomes start to shorten and thicken Nuclear membrane begins to breakdown Spindle fibres form (pathway for chromatids)

9 Metaphase Paired chromatids line up at the EQUATOR of the cell The centromere of each chromosome attaches to its respective spindle fibre Nuclear membrane no longer apparent

10 Early Anaphase Spindle fibres contract (shorten) Centromere splits between chromatids Mid Anaphase Chromatids separate and move to opposite poles (centrioles) Chromatids arrive at opposite sides of cell Late Anaphase

11 Early Telophase Nuclear membrane reappears Chromosomes look less thick and appear as thin threads of chromatin again Spindle fibres disappear Nuclear division complete: daughter cell Late Telophase Cytokinesis occurs and cytoplasm divides Cell membrane pinches the 2 cells apart at the equator

12 ons/content/mitosis.html

13 Cytokinesis Cell division The separation of the cytoplasm by a new cell membrane or cell wall to form two new daughter cells hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf: :535::535::/sites/dl/free/ / /bio14.swf::Mitosis and Cytokinesis CdckCdck- cell division activity

14 Mitosis Animation

15 Errors in Mitosis Mutations –Cause a permanent error, or change, in the normal DNA molecules –Can be caused by various mutagens such as toxic compounds, radiation, or viruses –Mutations are passed on during anaphase and therefore are found in a localized group of cells

16 FHIT –Found on chromosome 3 –Mutation causes the FHIT gene to undergo mitosis much more rapidly causing the formation of a tumour Oncogenes –Genes that can be activated by a mutation –Retinoblastoma, Wilms tumour, breast cancer es/medicine/2001/cellcycle.html


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