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Cell Growth and Reproduction Ch. 8.2Mitosis & Cytokinesis Cell Growth and Reproduction Ch. 8.2
Why do cells divide by Mitosis?Growth &Repair Reproduction of single celled organisms under? conditions constant environment Amobea Reproducing
Cells dividing by Mitosis…….Skin Identical to original cell Same chromosome # Identical chromosome makeup
Cell Cycle “G” or Growth 1 phase “S” or DNA Synthesis 24 hours“M” or Mitosis phase / Growth 2
Where is DNA located? 1. Nucleus 2. Chromosomes DNA I
Duplicated Chromosome (Late Interphase):X Sister Chromatids Centromere
Spindle & spindle fibers: Pull apart the sister chromatids
Cytokinesis:cell’s cytoplasm divides & splits apart
Stages of Mitotic Cell DivisionProphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase “1st” “middle” “apart” “far” or separate
Interphase “Intermission” Normal metabolic activities Major state DNA=chromatin
Late Interphase Prepares for mitosis DNA doubles= Sister chromatidsCentrioles double in animals X X X X X X
Prophase Nuclear membrane disappears Doubled DNA = condensed“chromosomes” Spindle fibers Prophase
Metaphase Chromosomes line up mid- cell Facing inward
Anaphase Chromosomes move to opposite poles at Centrioles in animalsSpindle apparatus in plants
Telophase Cells divide Cell plate or membranes form Nucleus reappears
Returns to Interphase “Intermission” Normal metabolic activitiesMajor state DNA=chromatin
Plant versus Animal MitosisCell wall from cell plate in telophase Sindles Animal: No cell wall membrane cytokinesis Centrioles
Animal Telophase Interphase
Plant Anaphase Interphase
Cancerous cells……... 1.Divide too many times2.Divide into more than two cells! Masses of cells = “tumors” benign malignant
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What Limits a Cell’s Size? 1. DNA content if cell is too large, DNA can’t control all of it 2. Diffusion Is efficient only over short distances – big.
Karyotype A picture of the chromosomes from a human cell arranged in pairs by size First 22 pairs are called autosomes Last pair are the sex chromosomes.
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Cell Growth and Reproduction. Cell Size Limitations How does a cell receive materials and expel its wastes? Through the plasma membrane This means that.
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The cell cycle Mitosis is only one section of the life cycle of a cell. Interphase is the main part of the cell cycle. This is where DNA is replicated.
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