Presentation on theme: "Phases of Cell Division"— Presentation transcript:
1Phases of Cell Division Interphase (stage between cell division)ProphaseMetaphaseAnaphaseTelophaseBy: Ms. Reis
2Review Each body cell has 2 sets of 23 chromosomes Therefore a normal human cell has 46 chromosomes
3Cell Division Cells divide for several reasons: To repair and heal tissuesTo exchange materials efficiently with their environment. Food comes in and wastes go out.To send messages to the nucleus efficiently.
4MitosisMitosis is a process of cell division producing two daughter cells from a single parent cell.The daughter cells are identical to one another and to the original parent cell.Note: Parent cell - the cell that dividesDaughter cell – the cells that result from cell division
5Down SyndromeKaryotype photograph of the entire set of chromosomes. 23 pairs for a total of 46In Down Syndrome-trisomic for chromosome 21, carries an extra chromosome
6KaryotypeA photograph showing the number, shapes and sizes of chromosomes in a cell.All pairs of chromosomes are homologus (identical in size and shape) except the sex chromosomes (23rd pair)One chromosome comes from the father (paternal) one chromosome comes from the mother (maternal
9Interphase The cell prepares for mitosis by growing rapidly Chromosomes duplicate in the nucleusLongest stage of the cell cycle
10ChromatinDNA molecules & proteins in a tangled fibrous mass during interphase. Chromatin is composed of 60% protein, 35 % DNA, and 5 % RNA.
11CentromeresThe original chromosome and its duplicate are attached at the centromere.Sister chromatids – the original chromosome and its duplicate while attached at the centromere.
12Prophase Chromosomes shorten and thicken Nuclear membrane dissolves Centrioles move to opposite poles of cell in animal cellsFormation of spindle fibersThe chromatin, diffuse in interphase, condenses into chromosomes. Each chromosome has duplicated and now consists of two sister chromatids.
13Metaphase46 sister chromatids line up at the equatorial plate.
14AnaphaseSpindle fibers pull sister chromatids (duplicated chromosomes) apart to the opposite end of the cell.Centromeres divide.
15Telophase Cell begins to pinch in two New nuclear membrane starts to formCytokinesis -division of the cytoplasm and organelles between both daughter cells
16ConclusionEach new cell ends up with the same amount of genetic material as the original cell.Both daughter cells are identical to the parent cells.
17CytokinesisIn animal cells the cell membrane pinches inward at the equator of the cell, producing a furrow.In plant cells a cell plate is formed across the equator of the cell. Cellulose is added to the cell plate to form a new cell wall.
18Discussion QuestionHow many chromosomes would you expect to find in each daughter cell after mitosis?Predict what might happen to each daughter cell if all the chromosomes moved to only one side of the cell during anaphase.Why is it necessary to duplicate the nuclear material?