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HOW THE BRAIN LEARNS: MASTERY THROUGH REPETITION.

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Presentation on theme: "HOW THE BRAIN LEARNS: MASTERY THROUGH REPETITION."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOW THE BRAIN LEARNS: MASTERY THROUGH REPETITION

2 BRAIN BASED TEACHING REPETITION LEADS TO MASTERY LEARNING “THERE IS NO BIGGER PHYCHOLOGIST’S COUCH THAN YOUR CLASSROOM”

3 THE COGNITIVE REVOLUTION  New technologies have replaced Behavioral Psychology with Cognitive Psychology based upon Neuroscience

4 THE COGNITIVE REVOLUTION  MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)  EEG (electroencephalogram)  PET (Positron Emission Tomography)  Can now detect changes in brain physiology Patient drinks radioactive glucose PET shows glucose activity in active areas of the brain

5  10% of what we ???  20% of what we ???  30% of what we ???  50% of what we ???  70% of what is ???  80% of what is ???  95% of what we ???

6  10% of what we READ  20% of what we HEAR  30% of what we SEE  50% of what we SEE and HEAR  70% of what is DISCUSSED with OTHERS  80% of what is EXPERIENCED PERSONALLY  95% of what we TEACH TO SOMEONE ELSE

7 “WE KNOW THAT LEARNING IS A MATTER OF MAKING CONNECTIONS BETWEEN BRAIN CELLS AND THAT THE EXPERIENCES OUR STUDENT HAVE SHAPE THEIR BRAINS. OBVIOUSLY WE DO LEARN FROM READING AND HEARING BUT THE STRONGEST CONNECTIONS ARE OFTEN MADE THROUGH CONCRETE EXPERIENCE- INTERACTIONS WITH OUR ENVIRONMENT. WHICH DO YOU THINK WOULD MAKE THE MOST LASTING CHANGES IN THE BRAIN, READING ABOUT AN EXPERIMENT SOMEONE CONDUCTED, OR PERFORMING THE EXPERIMENT YOURSELF?” PAT WOLFE ED. D

8  Neuron-brain cell consisting of a body, with an axon and dendrites  Dendrites – fingerlike input extensions that branch off from the neuron (brain cell)  Axon – output extension that pairs with dendrites  Synapse - synaptic gap the juncture between two connected neurons (the axon and dendrites)  Neurotransmitters – serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine) and hormones like cortisol and adrenaline  Myelin sheath-covering of neurons that thicken with use  Neurogenesis – or regeneration is the creation or growth of new brain cells

9  Brain cells are called neurons.  You are born with at least 100 billion neurons.  Dendrites (fibers) grow out of the neurons when you listen to/write about/talk about/ practice something.  Dendrites can grow only from a dendrite (fiber) that is already there – from something the learner already knows. Dendrites connect to Axons.

10 HOW NEURONS COMMUNICATE Cell Diagram

11 HOW THE BRAIN LEARNS AND REMEMBERS  Neurons are constantly firing, integrating, and generating new information  Stimulation creates new dendrites  Axons grow to connect with other dendrites  Frequently used axons develop a fatty sheath of myelin = REPETITION

12 HOW THE BRAIN LEARNS AND REMEMBERS

13 THE PHYSICAL PROCESS OF LEARNING; MEMORY FORMATION  Long Term Potentiation (LTP)  Occurs when one neuron’s response to another has been increased  The neuron has learned to respond and each future response will require less effort

14  Sensory-perceptions through our senses  Short-Term  Working memory  Chunking  Long-Term  Implicit  Explicit

15  Holds sensory information for less than a second after it is perceived  Look and instantly remember/recall/ match  Good priming /introducing future objectives

16  Short time before dismissing/transferring  Holds only seven items  Lasts a dozen seconds  “Scratchpad”  Repetition, meaning, association increases transfer to long term

17  Immediate conscious/perceptions  Increases short term memory capacity  Break down objectives  Brain can easily remember  7 bits

18  Storing, managing, retrieving  Days, months, years, or a lifetime  Rehearsed short term memories  Change = Long term potentiation  Increased number of networks

19  Declarative or Episodic memory  KNOWING WHAT  Requires conscious thought  Facts/events  How most people define memory

20  Procedural or Priming  KNOWING HOW  Experience/ performance  Does not require conscious thought  Rote-unaware

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23 THE LEARNING PROCESS… REPETITION  As we learn, specific dendrites grow so that specific neurons connect at specific synapses to create large and more complex networks.  There can be as many as 10,000 connections (synapses) per neuron (100 billion neurons).  Do the math!! - a very complex network.

24 THE LEARNING PROCESS… REPETITION  Synapses can change in number minute by minute.  Some synapses are strong, and some are weak – so weak they don’t even send a signal.  Through learning (REPETITION), weak synapses can become strong.  No matter how many synapses a neuron has, it also has the potential to grow more.

25 STRENGTHENING CONNECTIONS The brain learning, remembering, and growing. “Crossing The Ravine” https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=BEwg8TeipfQ https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=BEwg8TeipfQ

26 ACTIVITY  Look at the math formula  Can you imagine how students feel when they see that monster? x = -b ±√b 2 -4ac 2a 2a Now put it to the tune of pop goes the weasel

27 12 PRINCIPLES OF BRAIN BASED LEARNING  The brain is a complex adaptive system.  The brain is “plastic.”  Learning occurs through “patterning.”  Emotions are critical to learning  Every brain simultaneously perceives and creates parts and wholes.  Brain chemistry affects behavior.  We are what we eat.  Movement affects learning.  Repetition is vital, necessary.  Complex learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat.  Every brain is uniquely organized.

28  Frequently used axons develop a fatty sheath of myelin = REPETITION  When you practice something, the dendrites grow thicker with a fatty coating.  The thicker the dendrites, the faster the signals travel. The coating also reduces interference.  Have you ever noticed how some people seem to come up with the answer quicker than others? Thicker dendrites.

29  With enough practice, the dendrites build a double connection.  Myelin sheath thickens -faster, stronger, double connections last a very long time. You remember what you learned!  Students remember – increased academic success

30 THE IMPORTANCE OF REPETITION  Keep going over it!  “Repetition is a fundamental quality for learning new skills”, (Kilgard and Merzenich, 1998)  Synapses are not static, they constantly adapt in response to activity, (Atwood & Karunannithi, 2002 )

31  Pre-exposure  Priming  Previewing  Reviewing  Revision

32  Pre-exposure-covertly introduce days, weeks, months ahead;  Example: I am teaching the proclamation of 1763 and I ask does anyone know what manifest destiny is, or elementary kids being exposed to algebraic signs by working with symbols

33  Priming- covertly teach objective for multiple purposes. ex U.S. map-it is not the state I am interested in but they don’t know that

34  Previewing- aka long term priming-set up content minutes before presenting it activate prior knowledge  Hard Overview-allows for student to build comfort, access prior knowledge

35  Reviewing- minutes after learning; going over previously exposed material-re-firing the same neural connections

36  Revision- hours, days or weeks after; reconstructing the learning and solidifying neural connections

37 “We are tasked with manipulating the most sophisticated organ on the planet” Weathers,  Mastery  Alignment  Outcomes Based Education

38  How the brain learns is already incorporated into the Hamilton Instructional Plan  Priming, previewing are key components to help you repeat learning objectives, thus leading to mastery.  Student state is highly important!  REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, AND REPEAT  QUESTIONS?

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40 When you create a memory, a pathway is created between your brain cells. It is like clearing a path through a dense forest. The first time that you do it, you have to fight your way through the undergrowth. If you don't travel that path again, very quickly it will become overgrown and you may not even realize that you have been down that path. If however, you travel along that path before it begins to grow over, you will find it easier than your first journey along that way. Successive journeys down that path mean that eventually your track will turn into a footpath, which will turn into a lane, which will turn into a road, and into a motorway and so on. It is the same with your memory: the more times that you repeat patterns of thought, for example when learning new information, the more likely you will be able to recall that information. So repetition is a key part of learning.

41  Commonalities: A belief that all students can learn. Time as an important variable in the learning process A focus on outcomes The importance of monitoring and a feedback loop. The importance of data Focused on Student Performance

42  Correlates of Effective Schools Clear and Focused Mission High Expectations Positive School Learning Climate Strong Instructional Leadership Effective School- Community Relationships Opportunity to Learn and Time on Task (TIME) Frequent Monitoring of Pupil Performance (FEEDBACK) Instructional Alignment Mastery Learning Outcomes-based Education

43  Correlates of Effective Schools Clear and Focused Mission High Expectations Positive School Learning Climate Strong Instructional Leadership Effective School-Community Relationships Opportunity to Learn and Time on Task (TIME) Frequent Monitoring of Pupil Performance (FEEDBACK) Outcomes-based Education Mastery Learning Instructional Alignment Used to operationalize correlates 6 & 7

44  Mastery Learning, ML, is an instructional strategy based on the principle that all students can learn a set of reasonable objectives with appropriate instruction and sufficient time to learn.  Master Learning puts the techniques of tutoring and individualized instruction into a group learning situation and brings the learning strategies of successful students to nearly all the students of a given group.  In its full form, it includes a philosophy, curriculum structure, instructional model, the alignment of student assessment, and a teaching approach.

45 Madeline Hunter developed a teacher "decision-making" model for planning instruction. Her model is called ITIP (Instructional Theory into Practice) and is widely used in school districts around the country and in Michigan. There are three categories which are considered basic to ITIP lesson design.  1. Content: Within the context of grade level, content standards, student ability/needs, and rationale for teaching, the teacher decides what content to teach.  2. Learner Behaviors: Teachers must decide what students will do (a) to learn and (b) to demonstrate that they have learned.  3. Teacher Behaviors: Teachers must decide which "research-based" teaching principles and strategies will most effectively promote learning for their students.

46  When using Direct Instruction (DI) as the Framework for planning, the teacher increases his/her effectiveness by considering the following seven elements as they "bring alive" the content or as they "scaffold" the learning needs of the students. Teacher decision making is the basis of this approach to teaching. "Decide, then design" is the foundation on which all successful instruction is built.  The following excerpts are taken from "Planning for Effective Instruction: Lesson Design" in Enhancing Teaching by Madeline Hunter, 1994, pp

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48 1. Clearly state the objectives representing the purposes of the course. 2. The curriculum is divided into relatively small learning units, each with their own objectives and assessment. 3. Learning materials and instructional strategies are identified; teaching, modeling, practice, formative evaluation, re-teaching, reinforcement, and summative evaluation are included. 4. Each unit is preceded by brief diagnostic tests, or formative assessments. 5. The results of formative tests are used to provide supplementary instruction, or corrective activities to help the learner overcome problems.  *** Time to learn must be adjusted to fit aptitude. NO STUDENT IS TO PROCEED TO NEW MATERIAL UNTIL BASIC PREREQUISITE MATERIAL IS MASTERED.***

49 Instructional Period (3 weeks) Clearly Defined Outcomes T each, T est, R e-teach T T R Summative Assessment T each, T est, & Move on Clearly Defined Outcomes Summative Assessment NO YES Mastery Learning Instructional Delivery Process Data-Driven Feedback SystemStudents learn at different rates Variety of instructional methodologies Expanded Opportunity to Learn

50  John Carroll  Model of  School Learning Benjamin Bloom Learning For Mastery Mastery Learning Aptitude: Time needed to learn Key to successful learning for all: Focused on the use of time as a key variable in learning 1. Opportunity to Learn: Time allowed for learning 2. Perseverance: Time willing to spend Quality of Instruction Ability to Understand Instruction Clearly stated outcomes Pre-test Direct instruction Formative assessments Correctives / Enrichment

51  John Carroll  Model of  School Learning Learning = Time Spent (TS) P factor Time Needed (TN) Aptitude Quality of Instruction Ability to Understand

52 Unit Outcomes Pre-Test Check for PCS Direct Instruction Formative Assessments Enrichment Correctives Summa tive Next Unit Re-teach Anticipatory Set Objective / Purpose Input Modeling Checking for Understanding Guided Practice Independent practice. Closure

53  Our goal is to Master information that is Instructionally Aligned!!!

54  Instructional Alignment refers to the degree to which intended outcomes, instructional processes and assessment (testing) match with efforts to produce the outcomes.

55 Performance Indicators Assessment Instructional Processes The assessment defines and describes better than anything else what you want students to know and do at the end of a learning experience. The assessment item is the “De Facto Descriptor” of the learning experience.

56 Unit Tests Instruction and alignment are powerful predictors of standardized test performance! Alignment is imperative to student success! Alignment Standardized Test

57 Safe and Orderly Climate Effective Classroom Mgmt. Conducive to learning Lesson Plans Unit Plans Study Guides Aligned Formative and Summative Frequent Begin with end in mind Aligned Curriculum Guides Curriculum Maps Unit Plans Foundational Building Blocks Effective Schools Outcomes-based Education Mastery Learning Instructional Learning How the Brain Learns High Quality Alignment Variety High Level of Student Engagement

58 Summative Instructional Alignment Next Quarter Check for understanding Independent practice Guided Practice Modeling Input Check for understanding Independent practice Guided Practice Modeling Input Check for understanding Independent practice Guided Practice Modeling Input

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60  The High Success Network  Perhaps the best-known model of OBE was developed by Bill Spady and his associates at the High Success Network. Spady lists four principles that he believes should characterize OBE:   Clarity of focus (having specific outcomes gives a strong sense of purpose to everything teachers and students do).  Design down, deliver up (when planning curriculum, educators start with the outcomes and work backwards; when planning instruction, teachers teach what students need to learn to demonstrate the outcomes).  High expectations (OBE departs from traditional education in its assumption that all students can learn well—although not in the same way and not necessarily on the same day), an.  Expanded opportunities (students must be permitted to demonstrate their learning in different ways, and they must have numerous opportunities to demonstrate the outcomes, not just one. Spady calls this “grading in pencil”).

61  Concerned that some people equate outcome-based education with mastery learning, Spady and his colleague Kit Marshall have developed a way of categorizing OBE programs. Mastery learning, they explain, is a technique for insuring that more students learn well, but it applies to any content. Outcome- based education incorporates the principles of mastery learning but goes beyond them to be concerned with what students are to learn and why.  What is the relationship of OBE and the Effective Schools Correlates?

62 Action research is a valuable method for determining the effectiveness of new strategies and of those already in use, and for providing teachers with feedback for self-evaluation. Action research can be the work of just one teacher, but its value grows when it is the consistent effort of a teacher team, department, school staff, or an entire district. Your classrooms are your laboratories!!! This is where teaching and learning processes meet and interact!

63  Through all that has been said today remember, you will not digest this at one time ! leadership leadership  We are in this together!!!! Are there any questions.  extra-degree extra-degree


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