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Teaching, Learning, and Assessment. 2010. Learning Outcomes Are formulated by the academic staff, preferably involving student representatives in the.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching, Learning, and Assessment. 2010. Learning Outcomes Are formulated by the academic staff, preferably involving student representatives in the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching, Learning, and Assessment. 2010

2 Learning Outcomes Are formulated by the academic staff, preferably involving student representatives in the process, on the basis of input of internal and external stakeholders. Are statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and/or be able to demonstrate after completion of learning. They can refer to a single course unit or module or else to a period of studies, for example, a first or a second cycle programme. Learning outcomes specify the requirements for award of credit. 2

3 Why use learning outcomes? The use of learning outcomes allows for much more flexibility than is the case in more traditionally designed study programmes They show that different pathways can lead to comparable outcomes; outcomes which can be much more easily recognized as part of another programme or as the basis for entrance to a next cycle programme. 3

4 Competencies Competences are obtained or developed during the process of learning by the student/learner. They represent a dynamic combination of knowledge, understanding, skills and abilities. Fostering competences is the object of educational programmes. Competences will be formed in various course units and assessed at different stages. Time and attention should also be devoted to the development of generic competences or transferable skills. 4

5 Types of generic competences Instrumental competences: cognitive abilities, methodological abilities, technological abilities and linguistic abilities; Interpersonal competences: individual abilities like social skills (social interaction and co-operation); Systemic competences: abilities and skills concerning whole systems (combination of understanding, sensibility and knowledge; prior acquisition of instrumental and interpersonal competences required). 5

6 Examples of generic competencies The capacity for analysis and synthesis (Instrumental competency) The capacity to learn and problem solving skills (Instrumental competency) The capacity for applying knowledge in practice (Instrumental competency) The capacity to adapt to new situations (Systemic competency) 6

7 Examples of generic competencies Concern for quality (Instrumental competency) Information management skills (Systemic competency) Ability to work autonomously (Systemic competency) Team work (Interpersonal competency) The capacity for organizing and planning, oral and written communication as well as interpersonal skills (Interpersonal competency). 7

8 Why use learning outcomes and competencies? Their use is necessary in order to make study programmes and their course units or modules student centred / output oriented. This approach requires that the key knowledge and skills that a student needs to achieve during the learning process determine the content of the study programme. Learning outcomes and competences focus on the requirements both of the discipline and of society in terms of preparing for citizenship and employability. 8

9 Disadvantages of the teacher- centred approach. Teacher-centred programmes are input oriented. They often reflect a combination of the fields of interest and expertise of the members of staff. This leads to programmes of rather loose units which might not be sufficiently balanced and most effective. Although it is important to make maximum use of the available expertise of the staff, this aspect should not dominate a programme. 9

10 What is OBE? An educational philosophy organised around several basic beliefs and principles. Starts with the belief that all students can learn and succeed (The success of the student is the responsibility of the teacher). Organised from a focus on exit level outcomes and designed downwards to the unit levels. It focuses teaching & learning strategies on clearly defined learning outcomes getting high standards with high expectations for all students & includes expanded opportunities for enrichment and remediation. 10

11 OBE thus means: Defining, organizing, focussing, and directing ALL aspects of an instructional and credentialising system in relation to things we want ALL learners to demonstrate successfully when they exit the system (Spady, 1994) 11

12 Tenets of OBE Focus on outcomes The curriculum design process (from exit level outcomes and downwards) The responsibility of the institution and facilitators to supply appropriate learning experiences for the success of all students. 12

13 Key Purposes of OBE EQUIP ALL students with the competencies and orientations needed for future success. IMPLEMENT Programmes and conditions that maximise learning success for ALL students 13

14 OBE Principles 1. CLARITY OF FOCUS on culminating exit outcomes of significance. 2. DESIGN DOWN from your ultimate, culminating outcomes. 3. HIGH EXPECTATIONS for high level success. 4. EXPANDED OPPORTUNITIES and support for learning success.

15 1. Clarity of Focus on Outcomes of Significance: Having a clear focus on the ultimate learning results educators desired for students; Continuously sharing, explaining, and modeling that clear focus with them from the very beginning of any learning experience; Keeping all instruction and assessment directly aligned and consistent with that desired result.

16 2. Design Down from Your Ultimate Outcomes: Designing curriculum/learning experiences/instruction systematically BACK from that ultimate, desired end; Putting in place the enabling skills that provided a clear pathway to that end, and always keeping it in sight.

17 3. High Expectations for High Level Success: Establishing and consistently employing “high expectations” regarding every student’s ability to eventually reach those ultimate learning results in a quality way; Insisting that no student is to be “written off” as incapable of learning successfully.

18 4. Expanded Opportunities and Support: Expanding the number, range, and kinds of opportunities students are given to learn and ultimately demonstrate their learning successfully. This requires that time be viewed and used as a flexible resource, not as a calendar and schedule-bound “definer” of the educational process.

19 How do we enhance successful learning? In our teaching and learning environment, successful learning: Is expected of all students Is our priority Takes many forms Is a collaborative effort Is an ongoing progress, not an event Stimulates more successful learning Gets openly recognised and supported 19

20 Role of Facilitator in OBE The facilitator’s role in the classroom will become that of a coach. The goal is to move each learner towards pre-determined outcomes rather than attempting to transmit the content of Western civilization to the next generation in a scholarly fashion. Focus is no longer on content. Feelings, attitudes, and skills such as learning to work together in groups will become just as important as learning information (some reformers would argue more important). 20

21 References Spady, W. 1994. Outcome Based Education: Critical Issues and Answers. Arlington, Va.: American Association of School Administrators. Spady, W, and Schlebusch, A. 1999. Curriculum 2005: A Guide for Parents. Cape Town: Tafelberg. Accessed 6 th May 2009. beconfusionpaper.pdf Accessed 6 th May 2009. beconfusionpaper.pdf 7/14/201521Teaching, Learning & Assessment

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