3Male Reproductive System Testis – male gonadsEpididymis - structure in the male reproductive system in which sperm fully mature and are stored – Sperm is produced in the seminiferous tubulesvas deferens - tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethraProstate gland – large gland that secretes semen directly into the urethraUrethra - tube through which urine and semen are released from the bodyPenis - external male reproductive organ that connects the urethra to the outside of the bodySpermatogenesis – the meiotic process of sperm production
7Female Reproductive System The main structures of the female reproductive system are theOvaries – where meiosis occursFallopian tubes (oviduct) – where fertilization occurs; after ovulation the egg moves through the oviduct to the uterusUterus – where the blastula stage of the embryo will implant and develop during the 9 month gestationVagina – birth canalCervix – mouth of the uterusEndometrium – lining of the uterusIn addition to producing eggs, the female reproductive system prepares the female’s body to nourish a developing embryo.
8Female Reproductive System Follicle - cluster of cells surrounding a single egg in the human female reproductive systemOvulation - process in which an egg is released from the ovary
10Menstrual CycleHuman females release a gamete (egg) about every 28 days from puberty to menopauseFollicular Phasefollicles in ovaries grow in response to FSH release from pituitary glandIncreasing amount of estrogen releasedOvulationSecondary oocyte ruptures out of the ovaries in response to an increase of luteinizing hormone (LH) from anterior pituitary gland. (about 14 days after menstruation)Luteal PhaseAfter ovulation the Corpus Luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone that thicken the endometriumMenstruationIf implantation of the embryo does not occur the buildup of the lining is shed. This is commonly called the period
11Menstrual Cycle Follicular Phase Ovulation Luteal Phase Menstruation follicles in ovaries grow in response to FSH release from pituitary glandIncreasing amount of estrogen releasedOvulationSecondary oocyte ruptures out of the ovaries in response to an increase of luteinizing hormone (LH) from anterior pituitary gland. (about 14 days after menstruation)Luteal PhaseAfter ovulation the Corpus Luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone that thicken the endometriumMenstruationIf implantation of the embryo does not occur the buildup of the lining is shed. This is commonly called the period
12Fertilization and Development Monoploid (n) Egg is ReleasedFertilization – Usually occurs in the upper region of the fallopian tubeZygote – a fertilized eggCleavage – rapid mitotic divisions which occurs after fertilizationZygote Morula BlastulaImplantation – Usually occurs 6 to 7 days after fertilization.Blastula undergoes gastrulation GastrulaGastrulation - process of cell migration by which a third layer of cells is formed within the cavity of a blastocyst
14Endocrine System Regulatory System separate, but works together with the Nervous System to: Maintain Homeostasis
15Endocrine System and Nervous System Secretes hormones.NervousSecretes neurotransmittersIn one case:Epinephrine (adrenaline) – works for both systemsEndocrine – Fight or Flight hormone released by adrenal glandNervous – neurotransmitter which relays messages from one neuron another neuron
16Hormones (chemicals)Chemicals that travel through the bloodstream and affect the activities of other cellsTravel through blood target cell, tissue, organCan produce either:immediate, short-lived responseepinephrineDramatic, long-term development or an entire organismMetamorphosis
17Tropic HormonesHormones that stimulate other glands to release hormones. (far reaching affects)Anterior Pituitary Gland TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)TSH stimulates thyroid Thyroxin controls metabolic rate
18Hypothalamus Bridge between the Endocrine and Nervous systems Fight-or-Flight – sends electrical signals (impulses) adrenal gland epinephrineEndocrineProduces oxytocin and antidiuretic homone Stores it in pituitory gland
19Feedback MechanismsSelf-regulating mechanism that increases or decreases an action or the level of a particular substancePositive Feedback – laborContractions begin baby head to uterine opening more contraction more pressureNegative FeedbackThyroxin levels in bloodHypothalamus TSH stimulates thyroid thyoxin hypothalamus stop making TSH
24Excretory System Aids in the removal of waste materials Skin Lungs Kidneys
25The kidneyMaintains homeostasis by controlling pH, water levels, blood volume, and waste materialsUreter – tube which carries urine to the urinary bladder.Nephron – functional unit of the kidney (about 1 million in each kidney)Glomerulus – small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of the nephron by a cup-shaped structure called Bowman’s capsulLoop of Henle – section of the nephron tubule where water is conserved, minimizing the amount of urine.
28The Skeletal SystemThe skeleton supports the body, protects internal organs, provides for movement, stores mineral reserves, and provides a site for blood cell formation.
29Bone StructurePeriosteum - tough layer of connective tissue surrounding a boneHaversian canal - one of a network of tubes running through compact bone that contains blood vessels and nervesbone marrow - soft tissue inside cavities within bones; two types are yellow marrow and red marrow
31Bone FormationCartilage - strong connective tissue that supports the body and is softer and more flexible than boneOssification - process of bone formation, during which cartilage is replaced by boneOsteoblast – Helps to form boneOsteocyte – Helps to maintain boneOsteoclast – Helps to breakdown bone
32Joints Joint - place where one bone attaches to another Depending on its type of movement, a joint is classified as:Immovable Joints - fused together (skull)Slightly Movable Joints – vertebrae; tibia, fibulaFreely Movable Joints
36The Muscular System There are three different types of muscle tissue: Skeletal – striated muscle (dark and light banding)Smooth – spindle shaped, one nucleus, not striatedcardiac – smaller cells, striated
39Integumentary SystemThe integumentary system serves as a barrier against infection and injury, helps to regulate body temperature, removes waste products from the body, and provides protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
40Skin FormationEpidermis - outer layer of the skin, formed by epithelial cellsThe outer layer of the epidermis is formed of dead, flattened cells that have been toughened by keratinThe inner layer of the epidermis forms new cells and those cells are pushed up to the surface of the epidermisKeratin - tough, fibrous protein found in skinMelanin - dark-brown pigment found in skin
41Skin Epidermis - outer layer of the skin Dermis - innermost layer of the skincollagen fibers, blood vessels, nerve endings, glands, sense organs, smooth muscles, and hair folliclesSweat Gland, Sebaceous GlandsSubcutaneous Layer – formed by a loose connective tissue called adipose (fat)
43Hair and NailsHair – functions: protection form UV rays, insulation, protection (dead keratin filled cells)hair follicle - tubelike pocket of epidermal cells that extends into the dermis; cells at the base of hair follicles produce hairNails – form in a similar process as skin. Keratin helps to harden nails