2Male Reproductive System urinary bladderseminal vesiclesprostate glandurethrapenisrectumepididymisCowper’s glandtestis/testesvas deferensscrotum
3Male Reproductive System (frontal view) See p. 62 in Review book
4Male Reproductive System Scrotum – sac of skin that holds testes. Hangs below body to keep testes cool. Sperm cannot be produced if body is too warm. Testes move into scrotum just before birth.Testis/testes – male gonads. Made up of small, coiled tubes – seminiferous tubules per testis. Immature sperm made here.Secrete testosterone
5Male Reproductive System Epididymis – storage area in upper rear of testis. Immature sperm move here to mature – takes 18 hours.Vas deferens – tube that leads upwards from each testis into lower part of abdomen from epididymis.Cowper’s gland – produces fluids that nourish sperm and protect them from the acidity of female.Combination of sperm and fluids - semen
6Male Reproductive System 6. Rectum – holds wastes7. Seminal vesicles – same job as Cowper’s gland8. Urinary bladder – stores urine9. Prostate gland – same job as Cowper’s gland and seminal vesicles10. Urethra – passageway for excretion of urine and for sperm to leave body. Vas deferens empties into urethra
7Male Reproductive System 11. Penis – male reproductive organ. Facilitates internal fertilizationEjaculation – muscular contractions force semen through urethra. Before, during and after ejaculation reflex actions keep outlet of bladder closed
8Hormones and Negative Feedback in Males Negative Feedback – change that leads to a response that causes something to counteract that changeLuteinizing Hormone (LH) – stimulates testes to produce testosteroneTestosterone – stimulates development of sperm. Once there is a large number of sperm, puberty is complete.
9What is the effect of high levels of LH? Testosterone is producedWhat is the effect of high levels of testosterone?Slows production of LH which in turn slows production of testosteroneWhat is the overall outcome of this on-off negative feedback system involving LH and testosterone?Nearly constant level of both hormones - homeostasis
10Male Reproductive System and Hormones Explain how LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone.Circulates in the blood- reaches the testes target cells – stimulates them to produce testosteroneWhat happens when the levels of testosterone are too high in the body?LH level dropsWhat is negative feedback and how does it maintain homeostasis?Change in conditions triggers response in body to counteract that condition. Keeps hormones in balance
11Female Reproductive System oviductovaryUrinary bladderuterusurethrarectumcervixvagina
12Female Reproductive System (frontal view) See p. 61 in Review book
14Follicles – each ovary contains 200,000 egg sacs called follicles Follicles – each ovary contains 200,000 egg sacs called follicles. In each follicle is an immature egg.All the eggs are present at birth. During the woman’s lifetime 500 eggs matureWhen an egg matures, follicle moves to surface of ovary.Follicle breaks & releases the egg – ovulationEgg can be fertilized for about 24 hours after ovulation
15Female Reproductive System 2. Oviduct (fallopian tube) – Each ovary is near but not connected to oviduct. Tube with funnel-like opening. Cilia line it to create a current that draws the egg into the tube. Egg is fertilized in the oviduct3. Uterus – thick, muscular, pear-shaped organ. Once egg is fertilized it finishes its development in uterus attached to uterine wall
16Female Reproductive System 4. Urinary bladder – storage of urine5. Urethra – passage of urine to outside of body6. Vagina (birth canal) – leads to outside of body7. Cervix – narrow neck of uterus8. Rectum – passage for wastes
17The Menstrual Cycle What is the menstrual cycle? Cycle during which an egg develops and is released from the ovary and the uterus is prepared to receive a fertilized eggMenarche: first menstrual period – usually occurs between 11 and 12Menopause: time when a woman stops menstruating, usually between 45 & 55 and is no longer able to conceive.
19The Menstrual Cycle1. Menstruation: Loss of egg and uterine tissue via vagina if fertilization does not occur2. Follicle Stage (follicular stage): lasts 10 days, FSH & LH levels increase, egg matures, follicle secretes estrogen to prepare uterus
20The Menstrual Cycle3. Ovulation: High level of estrogen detected by hypothalamus, increased LH, decreased FSH, follicle bursts – egg released4. Corpus Luteum Stage (Luteal Phase): LH converts follicle to corpus luteum – secretes estrogen & progesterone. Progesterone prepares uterus. Increased progesterone keeps LH & FSH low
21Another Way of Looking at Negative Feedback in the Female Reproductive System (Hormones of the Menstrual Cycle)BrainPituitary glandFSH (causes egg to mature in follicle)LH (causes to egg to be let go = ovulation)ovaryEstrogen (causes uterine lining to thicken & build up to prepare for egg)uterusProgesterone (helps maintain uterine lining)
22Hormones of Menstrual Cycle What happens if fertilization occurs?Corpus luteum keeps producing progesterone to maintain pregnancy. After 5 weeks the embryo produces progesterone – this inhibits LH & FSH so no menstrual cycleWhat happens if fertilization does not occur?There is no implantation – the corpus luteum breaks down. Progesterone level drops, uterine lining breaks down – menstruation.FSH & LH are produced again – new cycleAverage Menstrual Cycle is 28 days long
23Ovulation to Implantation oviductuterusegg from ruptured folliclecervixovaryfolliclevaginasperm
24Ovulation to Implantation Ovary – produces estrogen & progesterone – meiosis occurs & egg developsEgg matures in follicle of ovaryOvulation – egg released from follicle – may live for 24 hours- egg moves into fallopian tube by cilia
25Ovulation to Implantation Events in fallopian tubeFertilization occurs here. Sperm lives 4-5 days (egg lives 1 day)Zygote undergoes mitosis & travels down fallopian tube within 6-10 days. Zygote is ready to implant into uterus.
26Ovulation to Implantation Events in uterusImplantation – embryo implants/embeds into uterine lining & secretes hormone HCG to signal its arrivalCell Differentiation – cells divide by mitosis & become different due to gene expression. Different embryo parts will form.