Presentation on theme: "Romanticism continues into the 19 th Century Artistic and intellectual movement that originated in the late 18th century and stressed strong emotion, imagination,"— Presentation transcript:
Romanticism continues into the 19 th Century Artistic and intellectual movement that originated in the late 18th century and stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical correctness in art forms, and rebellion against social conventions.
The 19 th Century: Pluralism of Style Napoleonic Wars The ‘Machine’ age is in full swing with the development of the steam engine (1769) for use on ship and train. Camera takes it’s first picture,1827 Western expansion in the United States. Karl Marx Menifesto,1848 Revolution in Europe, Darwin’s origin of Species 1859 American Civil War, Transcontinental Railroad, 1869 First Movie camera patented,1891 Queen Victoria ( ) Reigns as Queen of England for 64 years, a period now known and the Victorian Era. Paintings by Tom Lovell, (top: Professor Lowe’s Balloon. Middle: The Hand Warmer. Bottom: The Union fleet Passing Vicksburg.)
Continuation of the Neoclassical Style: Pierre Vignon: Napoléon decided that a Temple of Glory to his Grande Armée should be built, and Pierre-Alexandre Vignon was commissioned to draw up the plans. After razing the previous efforts from 1790, building started on what was to be a Greek temple. The commemorative role of the edifice was lost when the Arc de Triomphe was completed in 1808, and again the focus of the structure became ambiguous. In 1814, Louis XVIII confirmed that the Madeleine should be a church, but in 1837 it was nearly selected to be the first railway station of Paris. Finally in 1842 it was consecrated as a church. Pierre Vignon, La madeleine, Paris,
Antonio Canova, Italian Sculptor. Napoleon Bonaparte’s favorite sculptor, Canova moved from Rome to Paris and became a great admirer of his, doing several Neoclassical style portraits of the French Emperor. Pauline Bonaparte Borghese as Venus, Marble, length cm Amore & Psyche Marble, cm 155x168, Amore & Psyche was a pre Napoleonic piece for which he is also very famous.
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson This painting is a good example of Romanticism. Atala, Sworn to virginity, falls passionately in love with a wild Carolina savage. Rather than betray her vow, she commits suicide and in this scene is buried by her lover and a priest (representing the church) in the shadow of a cross. Girodet dares to place church and sexual passion side by side, binding them with the theme of death and burial. Hopeless love, perished beauty, the grave, the purity of primitive life, and the consolation of religion are some of the Romantic themes Girodet successfully showed in this work. The Burial of Atala Oil on canvas. 207 x 267 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres ( ) French painter who was a leading figure in the neoclassical movement. Grande Odalisque (Odalisque: member of a Turkish harem.) drew acid criticism when first shown in 1814 (“She has three vertebrae too many!” “No bone, no muscle, no life.”), Mannerist in style, (small head, elongated torso and limbs, cool colors scheme.) but very Romantic in the taste for Exotic themes. Grande Odalisque, 1814, oil, Musée du Louvre at Paris.
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Apotheosis of Homer, 1827, Oil on canvas, 12’8”x16’11”, Louvre, Paris
Francisco de Goya y Lucientes ( ) The Third of May, 1808: The people of Madrid attacked a group of the mounted Egyptian soldiers (Mamelukes) of the French army. The participants and probably the witnesses of the attack were savagely punished by arrests and executions continuing throughout the night and the following morning of 3, May. Francisco de Goya. The Third of May, 1808, Oil on canvas, 266 x 345 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.
Francisco de Goya Charles IV ( ) king of Spain , son and successor of Charles III. He was a weak monarch dominated by his wife Maria Luisa of Parma and her lover, Manuel de Godoy, whom he appointed Prime Minister in Charles died on Jan. 20, 1819 in Rome. Francisco de Goya. Charles IV and His Family. c Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.
Francisco de Goya Cronus was the youngest son of Uranus (Heaven) and Gaia (Mother Earth), thus he belonged to the first divine generation. He, with the help of his mother, overthrew Uranus, to take his place in Heaven. As soon as he became ruler of the world Cronus married his own sister Rhea. Since it was foretold to him that he would be dethroned by one his children, he devoured them all in turn as soon as they were born: Hestia (Vesta), Demeter (Ceres), Hera (Juno), Hades (Pluto), and Poseidon (Neptune). Only Zeus (Jupiter) was saved by his mother, Rhea, to later fulfill the prophecy. In Ancient Rome Cronus was identified with Saturn. Saturn Devouring One of His Chidren. c Oil on canvas, 146 x 83 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.
Baron Antoine-Jean Gros ( ) Pupil of David. Influenced the French narrative Painting style. Utilized Baroque techniques of dramatic lighting and perspective. Napoleon is here depicted visiting a pest house, (where those inflicted with the plague are treated.) during his retreat from Egypt. He is seen as a Christ-like figure curing his men by the ”Kings touch.” Bonaparte Visiting the Plague-Stricken at Jaffa on 11 March Oil on canvas. 523 x 715 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.
Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault ( ) The Raft of the "Medusa" Oil on canvas. 490 x 720 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.
Théodore Géricault The Raft of the "Medusa" caused a political scandal because of its subject matter at the 1819 Salon in Paris. The shipwreck of the frigate Medusa took place in June 1816 near the West African coast. The crew left 150 passengers to their fate on a raft. When, two weeks later, the raft was found, there were only 15 survivors, 5 of them died after rescue. The case was silenced by the government, and when, a year later, it became public knowledge, it caused rage and criticism of governmental negligence and corruption. To achieve accuracy, the painter used a model of the raft and carefully studied real corpses. In this huge canvas, about 5 x 7 meters, Géricault mixed Realism and Romanticism. The combination of idealized figures and realistically depicted agony, absence of ‘classical’ or ‘heroic’, gigantic size and graphic detail, aroused violent debates between Neoclassical and Romantic artists. The painting had a seminal influence on the further development of Romanticism.
Théodore Géricault In 1820 Géricault traveled to England, where he painted his Race for the Derby at Epsom (Louvre). At the time of his death, Géricault was engaged in painting a series of portraits of mental patients that demonstrate the preoccupation of the romantic artists with derangement and neurosis. Among his other works are a number of bronze statuettes, a superb series of lithographs, and hundreds of drawings and color sketches. The Madwoman. c Oil on canvas. 72 x 58 cm. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyons, France.
Eugène Delacroix ( ) The Death of Sardanapalus, A full-fledged work of Delacroix’ mature style, is a lavish, violent, colorful canvas in which women, slaves, animals, jewels, and fabrics are combined in a swirling, almost delirious composition. The painting portrays the decision made by an ancient king to have his possessions (including his women) destroyed before he kills himself. The Death of Sardanapalus, , oil on canvas, Musée du Louvre, Paris.
Eugène Delacroix Delacroix's most overtly romantic and perhaps most influential work is Liberty Leading the People, a semi-allegorical glorification of the idea of liberty. This painting confirmed the clear division between the romantic style of painting, which emphasized color and spirit, and the concurrent neoclassical style (headed by the French painter J. A. D. Ingres), which emphasized line and cool detachment. Liberty Leading the People, 1830, oil on canvas, Musée du Louvre, Paris.
Eugène Delacroix Delacroix remained the dominant French romantic painter throughout his life. A trip to North Africa in 1832 provided subjects for more than 100 sensuous canvases. In addition, he received many government commissions for murals and ceiling paintings. Many of his late works, especially animal pictures, hunt scenes, and marine subjects, are superb, but others exhibit a certain dryness of execution and lack of inspiration. He also illustrated various works of William Shakespeare, the Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott, and the German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Delacroix's technique, in which he applied contrasting colors with small strokes of the brush, creating a particularly vibrant effect, was an important influence on the impressionists. He is also well known for his Journals, which display considerable literary talent and express his views on art, politics, and life. Delacroix died in Paris on August 13, The Massacre at Chios, detail, 1824, oil on canvas, Musée du Louvre, Paris.
Caspar David Friedrich ( ) Caspar David Friedrich was an outstanding 19th-century German romantic painter whose awesome landscapes and seascapes are not only meticulous observations of nature but are also allegories. Abbey in an Oak Forest, , oil on canvas, Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin.
Joseph Mallord William Turner ( ) Joseph Mallord William Turner was an English landscape painter who is renowned especially for his dynamic treatment of natural light effects in land and marine subjects. His work is of direct importance in the development of impressionism. The Slave Ship, 1840; Oil on canvas, 90.8 x cm; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Oil Painting: From the studio to the Great outdoors. During the early 19 th century, better uniformity of paints were developed as well as a more convenient way to carry them, in tin/lead tubes, (developed for food in the Napoleonic Wars.) These paints were mass produced and artists did not need to mix their own upon demand. This meant that the artist could take his studio in a relatively small box anywhere, and paint in ‘Plein Air’ or on site with natural light. The disadvantage was the changing time and weather. So artists began to paint quickly and more spontaneously.
Thomas Cole ( ) Cole is an American painter, one of the founders of Romantic landscape painting in the New World. He was born into an Anglo-American family in England in The family returned to the United States in 1818; until then young. In the USA, he entered the Philadelphia Academy of Art in Later he settled in the Catskills on the Hudson and became a co-founder of the so-called Hudson River School, which established Romantic landscape painting in America. Direct, spontaneous landscapes painted in the wilderness of the Catskill Mountains brought rapid recognition and attracted New York buyers. In 1829 and Cole traveled to Europe, he visited England, Switzerland and Italy, studying in particular the landscapes of European masters. On his return, having also absorbed philosophical and literary ideas, Cole introduced a new type of painting to America: the symbolic, moral landscape, as represented by the series on the themes of The Course of Empire. These are fantastic, symbolic scenes full of unusual effects of grandiose space and theatrical contrasts of light. Not satisfied with great American nature any longer, Cole increases fantastic and mystical character by introducing Biblical and antique subjects. His late pictures do not attain the fine quality of his earlier atmospheric landscapes, they are rough and primitive, but are supposed to stun spectators with extremely pretentious surrealism. View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm (the Oxbow) Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.
John Constable ( ) John Constable was one of the major European landscape artists of the XIX century, whose art was admired by Delacroix and Gericault and influenced the masters of Barbizon and even the Impressionists, although he did not achieved much fame during his lifetime in England, his own country. Landscape: Noon (The Hay-Wain) Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK Constable believed the actual study of nature was more important than any artistic model. He refused to "learn the truth second-hand". To a greater degree than any other artist before him, Constable based his paintings on precisely drawn sketches made directly from nature.
Camille Corot ( ) Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was a renowned French painter- especially of landscapes, who worked in romantic and realistic styles and was a forerunner of impressionistic style. From 1828 until his death, Corot lived in Paris. During the warm months he traveled throughout Europe, painting small oil sketches that, like those of his friends in the Barbizon School of artists, are among the first French landscapes to be painted outdoors. The sketches are marked by careful structure and the sense of natural light. He worked during winter months in his studio, producing large salon pieces with biblical or historical subjects. By 1845, after receiving critical acclaim, Corot began to sell his work. His landscapes thereafter became imaginary creations bathed in a filmy romantic atmosphere achieved by silvery tones and soft brushstrokes. He also painted a number of portraits and figure studies. He was generous to his friends and pupils with both time and money, earning the title père (“father”) Corot. He died in Paris on February 22, The Bridge at Nantes, Musée du Louvre at Paris
Couture, Thomas (French, ) Romans of the Decadence, 1847, Musée d'Orsay at Paris.
Photography: Nicéphore Niépce In 1827,Niepce developed the process of taking a Photo Obscura ( right) and using what is essentially polished silver and letting it interact with iodine vapors on the bitumen image he obtained genuine photographs in black and white on a pewter plate. First image seen at right took 8 hours of exposure in direct sunlight. By 1837, the process had been perfected and utilized by Victorian photographers working in studios.
Photography began a system for recording immediate visual images which was either accepted by artists and used to aid them in their craft or blatantly rejected. Even today, some people feel that photography is a recorder and not an artistic medium. Louis-Jacques Mandé Daguerre, Still life in Studio, 1837 Josiah J. Hawes (with Alabert S. Southworth. Early Operation Under Ether, Massachusetts Hospital Eugène Durieu (with Eugène Delacriox) Draped Model (back view), 1854 Mathew B. Brady, Dead in the Hole,
Paul Delaroche, (French Painter, ) This painting was completed a year before Delaroche's death in It depicts the death of a young Christian martyr in the 3rd century AD during the reign of the Roman Emperor Diocletian. The Young Martyr, 1855, Oil on canvas. 68 “x Louvre, Paris
Jean-Léon Gérôme, ( ) Jean-Leon Gerome ( ). Gerome was a French painter and sculptor. He was a pupil of Paul Delaroche and inherited his highly finished academic style. Gerome traveled widely in Turkey, Egypt and North Africa. A sculptor as well as a painter, his female figures have the same classical precision of Ingres, but are in much more realistic poses. Pygmalian and Galatea, Thumbs Down! (Gladiator), 1872, Oil on canvas, 39 1/2” X 58 1/2”, Phoenix Art Museum.
Honoré Daumier ( ) Transnonain Street portrays a dramatic event of one of the insurrections of April 1834, in which a civil guard was shot by a sniper. The shot came from a workers’ housing block, the remaining guards immediately stormed the building and massacred all of the inhabitants. This lithography has become very rare because hundreds of its copies were destroyed. Transnonain Street Lithography. Association of the Lovers of Honoré Daumier.
Honoré Daumier ( ) Daumier’s paintings are closer to the art of the 20th century than to his own: they are sketch- like and very expressive. The Third-Class Carriage Oil on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.
Gustave Courbet, ( ) (Jean Désiré) Gustave Courbet was an influential and prolific French painter, who, with his compatriots Honore Daumier and Jean Francois Millet, founded the mid-19th-century art movement called realism. A Burial at Ornans, , Oil on canvas, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
Gustave Courbet As radical in politics as he was in painting, Courbet was placed in charge of all art museums under the revolutionary 1871 Commune of Paris and saved the city's collections from looting mobs. Following the fall of the Commune, however, Courbet was accused of allowing the destruction of Napoleon's triumphal column in the Place Vendôme; he was imprisoned and condemned to pay for its reconstruction. He fled to Vevey, Switzerland, in 1873, where he continued to paint until his death on December 31, Bonjour Monsieur Courbet, 1854, Musée Fabre, Montpellier.
Thomas Eakins ( ) Thomas Eakins was an American realist painter- one of the foremost of the 19th century. Working independently of contemporary European styles, he was the first major artist after the American Civil War ( ) to produce a profound and powerful body of work drawn directly from the experience of American life. The Gross Clinic, 1875, Oil on canvas, 8’ x 6’6”. Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia. Self-Portrait, 1902, oil on canvas, National Academy of Design, New York.
John Singer Sargent ( ) John Singer Sargent was an American painter who is known for his glamorous portraits of eminent or socially prominent people of the period. The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882, Oil on canvas, 7’3” x 7’3”. Courtesy Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
John Singer Sargent Virginie was painted by different artists. John Sargent started work on his portrait of her when she was twenty three years old. The portrait was exhibited at the Spring Paris Salon in 1884 and aroused severe criticism. One commentator noted: “The storm that swirled around the picture gathered force from a basic confusion. The fierce reaction was caused primarily by the subject, and the painting was used as evidence. People were jeering at Madame Gautreau herself. Madame X (Madame Pierre Gautreau) Oil on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA. Self-Portrait, 1907, oil on canvas, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Winslow Homer ( ) Winslow Homer was an American naturalist painter who is often considered, along with Thomas Eakins, one of the greatest American 19th- century artists. Homer was almost entirely self-taught as a painter. A stay in England from 1881 to 1882, during which Homer lived in a fishing village, led to a permanent change in his subject matter. Thereafter he concentrated on large-scale scenes of nature, particularly scenes of the sea, of its fishermen, and of their families. A stay in England from 1881 to 1882, during which Homer lived in a fishing village, led to a permanent change in his subject matter. Thereafter he concentrated on large-scale scenes of nature, particularly scenes of the sea, of its fishermen, and of their families. Breezing Up, 1876, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art at Washington D.C.
Sir John Everett Millais ( ) Sir John Everett Millais was an English painter born in Southampton and educated in art at the Royal Academy of Arts in London. Beginning in the early 1870s, he created many portraits of British personalities, famous in his time. He was a careful artist who paid strict attention to detail, unusual composition, and clarity. In much of his later work he succumbed to the Victorian taste for sentiment and anecdotal art. Ophelia, , Tate Gallery, London.
Albert Bierstadt ( ) Bierstadt joined a surveying expedition to the western United States in 1858 after studying painting in Germany. The impressions and sketches made on this trip were the basis of many of his paintings. Looking Down the Yosemite Valley, California, 1865, oil on canvas, Birmingham Museum of Art.
Pre-Raphaelite movement The term Pre-Raphaelite, which refers to both art and literature, is confusing because there were essentially two different and almost opposed movements, the second of which grew out of the first. The term itself originated in relation to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, an influential group of mid-nineteenth-century avante garde painters associated with Ruskin who had great effect upon British, American, and European art. Those poets who had some connection with these artists and whose work presumably shares the characteristics of their art include Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Christina Rossetti, George Meredith, William Morris, and Algernon Charles Swinburne. The second form of Pre-Raphaelitism, which grows out of the first under the direction of D.G. Rossetti, is Aesthetic Pre-Raphaelitism, and it in turn produced the Arts and Crafts Movement, modern functional design, and the Aesthetes and Decadents. Rossetti and his follower Edward Burne-Jones ( ) emphasized themes of eroticized medievalism (or medievalized eroticism) and pictorial techniques that produced moody atmosphere. This form of Pre-Raphaelitism has most relevance to poetry; for although the earlier combination of a realistic style with elaborate symbolism appears in a few poems, particularly those of the Rossettis, this second stage finally had the most influence upon literature. All the poets associated with Pre- Raphaelitism draw upon the poetic continuum that descends from Spenser through Keats and Tennyson -- one that emphasizes lush vowel sounds, sensuous description, and subjective psychological states.
Sir Edward Burne- Jones ( ) Edward Burne-Jones was one of the most important members of the second phase of Pre- Raphaelitism in the 19th century. He was a firm supporter of Pre-Raphaelite ideals and a close friend of Rossetti, whom he had first met in 1857 when he had helped him to decorate the walls of the Oxford Union Debating Society with frescos. Under Rossetti's influence he painted a number of highly romantic subjects taken from the Arthurian legends, as well as myths and scenes from the Bible. King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid 1884, Oil on canvas.290 x 136 cm Tate Britain, London, England
William-Adolphe Bouguereau ( ) Adolphe William Bouguereau, had a long, successful career as an academic painter, exhibiting in the annual Paris Salons for more than 50 years. His paintings of religious, mythological, and genre subjects were carefully composed and painstakingly finished. Thus he opposed the admission of works by the impressionists to the Salon, because he believed that their paintings were no more than unfinished sketches. After a period of neglect following his death, Bouguereau's paintings were returned to view as part of a renewed interest in and reappraisal of academic painting and of Ecole des Beaux-Arts works in general. A major retrospective exhibition opened in Paris and was seen in Montreal and Hartford, Conn., in Nymphs & Satyr, 1873, oil on canvas, Sterling & Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts.
Jules Bastien-Lepage ( ) After the province of Lorraine was lost to Germany following the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, Frenchmen saw in Joan of Arc a new and powerful symbol. In 1875 Bastien- Lepage, a native of Lorraine, began to make studies for a picture of her. In the present painting, exhibited in the Salon of 1880, Joan is shown receiving her revelation in her parents' garden. Behind her are Saints Michael, Margaret, and Catherine. Joan of Arc, Oil on canvas, 8’4” x 9’2”. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Édouard Manet ( ) Manet's canvas, portraying a woodland picnic that included a seated female nude attended by two fully dressed young men, attracted immediate and wide attention, but was bitterly attacked by the critics. Hailed by young painters as their leader, Manet became the central figure in the dispute between the academic and rebellious art factions of his time. Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe (The Picnic), Oil on canvas, 7’ x 8’10”. Musée d’Orcay, Paris. Olympia, 1863, oil on canvas, Musée d'Orsay, Paris. In 1865 he exhibited his Olympia (1863, Musée d'Orsay), a nude based on a Venus by Titian, which aroused storms of protest in academic circles because of its unorthodox realism.
Édouard Manet, ( ) In 1882 one of his finest pictures, The Bar at the Folies- Bergère (Courtauld Institute and Galleries, London), was exhibited at the Salon, and an old friend, who was then minister of fine arts, obtained the Legion of Honor for the artist. Manet died in Paris on April 30, He left, besides many watercolors and pastels, 420 oil paintings. A Bar at the Folies-Bergère Oil on canvas. Courtauld Institute Galleries, London
Edouard Manet ( ) Boating, 1874, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The Railway Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA. The Fifer, 1866, oil on canvas, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.