Presentation on theme: "Chapter The Heritage of World Civilizations Brief Fifth Edition The Heritage of World Civilizations, Brief Fifth Edition Albert Craig William Graham Donald."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter The Heritage of World Civilizations Brief Fifth Edition The Heritage of World Civilizations, Brief Fifth Edition Albert Craig William Graham Donald Kagan Steven Ozment Frank Turner Revolutions in the Transatlantic World 22
Revolutions in the Transatlantic World Revolution in France Wars of Independence in Latin America Toward the Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic EconomyToward the Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy
Introduction World-transforming revolutions, Interconnected Americas established independence from European political control French monarchy collapsed Brought down Ancien Regime with it Desire to create new governments based on Enlightenment principles Opposition to slavery
Global Perspective: The Transatlantic Revolutions What is the relationship between the Enlightenment and the transatlantic revolutions? Between the Enlightenment and the crusade against slavery? How did the transatlantic revolutions fundamentally alter the relationship between Europe and the Americas?
Global Perspective: The Transatlantic Revolutions (cont'd) What is the relationship between the transatlantic revolutions and nationalism? Why did such a relationship exist?
Revolution in France
France: Revolutions of 1789 Estates General had three divisions First Estate – clergy Second Estate – nobility Third Estate – everyone else Voting by estate Third Estate loses all votes 2:1
France: Revolutions of 1789 (cont’d) Third Estate declares itself the National Assembly Tennis Court Oath National Constituent Assembly
Reconstruction of France Reorganization by National Constituent Assembly Constitutional monarchy established Unicameral Legislative Assembly Women excluded from voting Olympe de Gouges (d. 1793) Declaration of the Rights of Women
Olympe de Gouges Issues a Declaration of the Rights of Woman
Reconstruction of France (cont’d) Introduction of metric system Civil Constitution of the Clergy Louis XVI’s attempted escape, 1791
A Second Revolution Revolution becomes much more radical in 1791 Jacobins Girondists War on Austria declared in 1792 Constitutional monarchy overthrown Republic established Convention, 1792 Louis XVI executed January 21, 1793
Execution of Louis XVI
Chronology: The French Revolution
Reign of Terror Period of quasi-judicial executions Autumn of 1793 to summer of 1794 Committee of Public Safety – 1793 Almost dictatorial power Fully democratic convention, but suspended Levée en masse
Reign of Terror (cont’d) Society of Revolutionary Republican Women All women’s clubs eventually banned Execution of Olympe de Gouges, 1793
Republic of Virtue Republic in which civic virtue might flourish Policy of de-Christianization Cathedral of Notre Dame – Temple of Reason Maximilien Robespierre ( ) Key figure in Reign of Terror For him the Republic of Virtue meant renunciation of selfish gains from political life Execution of Marie Antoinette, 1793 Cult of the Supreme Being
Thermidorian Reaction Robespierre executed July 28, 1794 Sensed that the revolution had become too radical Reign of Terror ended Claimed 40,000 victims Machinery of terror destroyed Paris Jacobin Club closed
Thermidorian Reaction (cont’d) New Constitution Conservative Directory – new executive body Council of Elders – new legislative body
Napoleonic Era Napoleon Bonaparte ( ) Corsican origins Campaigns in Italy and Egypt Overthrow of Directory, 1799 Consulate ( ) Concordat with Pope Pius VII, 1801 Napoleonic Code, 1804 Child of Enlightenment or dictator?
Napoleon’s Empire Crowned emperor of France in 1804 Napoleon conquered most of Europe Changed map of Europe Ended Old Regime Battle of Trafalgar, 1805 Battle of Austerlitz, 1805
Napoleon’s Empire (cont’d) Economic warfare with the British Berlin Decrees, 1806 Milan Decree, 1807
Map 22–2. Napoleonic Europe in late 1812
William Pitt and Napoleon
Wars of Liberation Napoleon invades Spain in 1807 Places brother Joseph on throne Spanish respond with guerilla warfare French are vulnerable to this approach Long Spanish campaign drained French
Francisco de Goya, The Third of May, 1808
Wars of Liberation (cont’d) Rest of Europe inspired by French trouble Russians stand up to Napoleon Disastrous Russian campaign, 1812 Battle of Leipzig, 1813
Chronology: Napoleonic Europe
Congress of Vienna Viscount Castlereagh ( ) British foreign secretary Key person in achieving eventual agreement Quadruple Alliance Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia Formed to preserve settlement
Congress of Vienna (cont’d) Agreement that no single power should dominate Europe Constructed series of states to block French expansion Holy Roman Empire not revived Established the rule of legitimate monarchs Rejected hint of republican politics
Congress of Vienna (cont’d) Quadruple Alliance, 1815 France restored as fifth power Little desire to punish a defeated France Determined to prevent outbreak of future war Helped prevent major European war until 1914
Map 22–3 Europe 1815, after the Congress of Vienna
Wars of Independence in Latin America
Latin America Spain one of defeated powers in 1763 Charles III ( ) Convinced American colonial system had to be changed Abolished monopolies of Seville and Cadiz Opened more South American and Caribbean ports to trade Attempted to make tax collection more fair
Latin America (cont’d) Returned colonies to direct Spanish control
First Movements Haiti achieved independence in 1804 Slave revolt led by Toussaint L’Ouverture ( ) Jean-Jacques Dessalines ( ) Popular uprising Great exception in Latin America
First Movements (cont’d) Movement for independence usually led by Creole elite -Merchants, landowners, professional people
A Free Person of Color from St. Domingue Demands Recognition of His Status
Creole Goals Creoles determined that political independence should not cause Social disruption Loss of their social and economic privileges Few Indians, blacks, mestizos, mulattos, or slaves involved in movements
Creole Goals (cont’d) Few benefited from end of Iberian rule Transforming events Napoleon toppling Portuguese (1807) and Spanish (1808) monarchies
Map 22–4 The Independence Campaigns of San Martín and Bolívar
San Martín in Río de la Plata First region to assert independence Río de la Plata (Argentina) Ruling junta pushes for independence elsewhere José de San Martín ( ) Leads troops across Andes Occupied Santiago, Chile, by 1817 Bernardo O’Higgins ( ) made supreme leader of Chile
San Martín in Río de la Plata (cont’d) San Martín Control of Peru in 1821
Simón Bolívar ( ) Similar process of liberation in the north Civil war in Venezuela ( ) Bolivar invaded Venezuelan again in 1816 Named president in 1821 Meeting with San Martín in 1822 Disagreements on future of Latin America San Martín: monarchies; Bolívar: republics
Independence in New Spain Drive for independence in New Spain Represented conservative nature of elites Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla ( ) Creole priest who issued a call for rebellion Leader of 80,000 unorganized troops Captured and executed in 1811
Independence in New Spain (cont’d) Threat posed by liberal constitution in Spain Agustín de Iturbide ( ) DeclaredMexico independent in 1821
Brazilian Independence Came simply and peacefully Prince regent Joao ( ) Made Brazil a kingdom in 1815 No longer merely a colony
Brazilian Independence Joao’s son Pedro as regent ( ) Pedro embraced Brazilian independence Brazil became independent, 1822 Pedro as first emperor Support of proslavery elite
Chronology: The Wars of Latin American Independence
Toward the Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy
Origins of Abolition Movement In 1750, few questioned slavery By 1888, slavery no longer existed in transatlantic economy Abolition – legacy of Enlightenment, revolutions Crusade originated among religious writers Initial opposition among English Quakers
Origins of Abolition Movement (cont’d) Adam Smith’s philosophy Undermined economic defense of slave labor William Wilberforce
Abolitionism in the Americas Some slaves took matter into own hands Largest emancipation – Haiti Slave revolt of 1794 Revolt and independence of Haiti American Congress made slave trading a capital offense in 1824
Map 22–5 The Haitian Revolution
Abolition British formed Abolition Society in 1823 Slavery banned by British, 1833 Portuguese, 1836 Swedes, 1847 Danes, 1848 Dutch, 1863
Abolition (cont’d) British established Sierra Leone in 1787 Liberia established in 1817 Efforts of American Colonization Society
Spanish Slave Ship
Review Questions 2.How was the Estates General transformed into the National Assembly? How does the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen reflect the social and political values of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment? What were the chief ways in which France and its government were reorganized in the early years of the revolution?
Review Questions 3.What was the revolution of 1792, and why did it occur? What were the causes of the Reign of Terror, and what political coalitions made it possible?
Review Questions 4.How did Napoleon rise to power? What were his major domestic achievements? Did his rule more nearly fulfill or betray the ideals of the French Revolution?
Review Questions 5.What were the results of the Napoleonic Wars? Why did Napoleon decide to invade Russia? Why did he fail? What were the major outlines of the peace settlement achieved by the Congress of Vienna?
Review Questions 6.How was the Haitian Revolution influenced by the French Revolution? How did the Haitian Revolution influence other revolutionary movements in the Americas? How did it influence conservative movements in the Americas?
Review Questions 7.What political changes took place in Latin America in the twenty years between 1804 and 1824? What were the main reasons for Creole discontent with Spanish rule?
Review Questions 8.A motto of the French Revolution was “liberty, equality, and fraternity.” How might one compare the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Latin American wars of independence in regard to the achievement of these goals? Which groups in each country or region benefited from the revolution, and which gained little or nothing from the changes?
Review Questions 9.What intellectual and religious factors contributed to the rise of the antislavery movement? To what extent did nonhumanitarian forces contribute to it? What opposition did it meet? Why did slavery receive a new lease on life during the same years that the antislavery movement emerged?
Review Questions 10.What, if any, advances did women make as a result of these revolutions in the transatlantic world? Which groups tended to benefit most, and which least, from the events discussed in this chapter?