2Revolutions in the Transatlantic World 04/28/11Revolution in FranceWars of Independence in Latin AmericaToward the Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy
304/28/11Guerrilla WarfareGuerrilla Warfare. Haitian slaves ambush French forces during their successful revolt led by Toussaint L’Ouverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines in The Haitian revolution was the largest emancipation of slaves to occur in the eighteenth century.3
4Introduction World-transforming revolutions, 1776-1824 04/28/11World-transforming revolutions,InterconnectedAmericas established independence from European political controlFrench monarchy collapsedBrought down Ancien Regime with itDesire to create new governments based on Enlightenment principlesOpposition to slavery
5Global Perspective: The Transatlantic Revolutions 04/28/11What is the relationship between the Enlightenment and the transatlantic revolutions? Between the Enlightenment and the crusade against slavery?How did the transatlantic revolutions fundamentally alter the relationship between Europe and the Americas?
6Global Perspective: The Transatlantic Revolutions (cont'd) 04/28/11What is the relationship between the transatlantic revolutions and nationalism? Why did such a relationship exist?
7Revolution in France04/28/11Revolution in France7
8France: Revolutions of 1789 04/28/11Estates General had three divisionsFirst Estate – clergySecond Estate – nobilityThird Estate – everyone elseVoting by estateThird Estate loses all votes 2:1
9France: Revolutions of 1789 (cont’d) 04/28/11Third Estate declares itself the National AssemblyTennis Court OathNational Constituent Assembly
1004/28/11Women’s MarchWomen’s March. The women of Paris marched to Versailles on October 7, The following day the royal family was forced to return to Paris with them. Henceforth, the French government would function under the constant threat of mob violence. Anonymous, 18th century, “To Versailles, to Versailles.” The Women of Paris going to Versailles, October 7, French, Musée de la Ville de Paris, Musée Carnavalet, Paris, France. Photograph copyright Bridgeman-Giraudon/Art Resource, New York.10
11Reconstruction of France 04/28/11Reorganization by National Constituent AssemblyConstitutional monarchy establishedUnicameral Legislative AssemblyWomen excluded from votingOlympe de Gouges (d. 1793)Declaration of the Rights of Women
12Olympe de Gouges Issues a Declaration of the Rights of Woman 04/28/11Olympe de Gouges Issues a Declaration of the Rights of WomanOlympe de Gouges Issues a Declaration of the Rights of Woman12
13Olympe de Gouges Issues a Declaration of the Rights of Woman 04/28/11Olympe de Gouges Issues a Declaration of the Rights of WomanOlympe de Gouges Issues a Declaration of the Rights of Woman13
14Reconstruction of France (cont’d) 04/28/11Introduction of metric systemCivil Constitution of the ClergyLouis XVI’s attempted escape, 1791
15A Second Revolution Revolution becomes much more radical in 1791 04/28/11Revolution becomes much more radical in 1791JacobinsGirondistsWar on Austria declared in 1792Constitutional monarchy overthrownRepublic establishedConvention, 1792Louis XVI executed January 21, 1793
16Execution of Louis XVI 04/28/11 Execution of Louis XVI. On January 21, 1793, the Convention executed Louis XVI. Execution of Louis XVI. Aquatint. French, 18th century. Musée de la Ville de Paris, Musée Carnavalet, Paris, France. Giraudon/Art Resource, New York.16
17Chronology: The French Revolution 04/28/11Chronology: The French RevolutionChronology: The French Revolution17
18Reign of Terror Period of quasi-judicial executions 04/28/11Period of quasi-judicial executionsAutumn of 1793 to summer of 1794Committee of Public Safety – 1793Almost dictatorial powerFully democratic convention, but suspendedLevée en masse
19Reign of Terror (cont’d) 04/28/11Society of Revolutionary Republican WomenAll women’s clubs eventually bannedExecution of Olympe de Gouges, 1793
20Republic of Virtue Republic in which civic virtue might flourish 04/28/11Republic in which civic virtue might flourishPolicy of de-ChristianizationCathedral of Notre Dame – Temple of ReasonMaximilien Robespierre ( )Key figure in Reign of TerrorFor him the Republic of Virtue meant renunciation of selfish gains from political lifeExecution of Marie Antoinette, 1793Cult of the Supreme Being
21Revolutionary Calendar 04/28/11Revolutionary CalendarRevolutionary Calendar. To symbolize the beginning of a new era in human history, French revolutionary legislators established a new calendar. This calendar for Year Two (1794) proclaims the indivisible unity of the revolution and the goals of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.21
22Thermidorian Reaction 04/28/11Robespierre executed July 28, 1794Sensed that the revolution had become too radicalReign of Terror endedClaimed 40,000 victimsMachinery of terror destroyedParis Jacobin Club closed
23Thermidorian Reaction (cont’d) 04/28/11New ConstitutionConservativeDirectory – new executive bodyCouncil of Elders – new legislative body
24Napoleonic Era Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Consulate (1799-1804) 04/28/11Napoleon Bonaparte ( )Corsican originsCampaigns in Italy and EgyptOverthrow of Directory, 1799Consulate ( )Concordat with Pope Pius VII, 1801Napoleonic Code, 1804Child of Enlightenment or dictator?
2504/28/11NapoleonNapoleon. In December 1799 Napoleon seized power and established himself as First Consul. The title of “Consul” came from the ancient Roman Republic; by Napoleon would assume the title of “Emperor” as the French Republic gave way to the Napoleonic Empire. The simplicity of this modest military dress as First Consul also gave way to flowing imperial robes.25
26Napoleon’s Empire Crowned emperor of France in 1804 04/28/11Crowned emperor of France in 1804Napoleon conquered most of EuropeChanged map of EuropeEnded Old RegimeBattle of Trafalgar, 1805Battle of Austerlitz, 1805
27Napoleon’s Empire (cont’d) 04/28/11Economic warfare with the BritishBerlin Decrees, 1806Milan Decree, 1807
28Map 22–2. Napoleonic Europe in late 1812 04/28/11Map 22–2. Napoleonic Europe in late 1812Map 22–2. Napoleonic Europe in late By mid-1812 the areas shown in peach were incorporated into France, and most of the rest of Europe was directly controlled by or allied with Napoleon. But Russia had withdrawn from the failing Continental System, and the decline of Napoleon was about to begin.28
29William Pitt and Napoleon 04/28/11William Pitt and NapoleonWilliam Pitt and Napoleon. In this early nineteenth-century cartoon, England, personified by a caricature of William Pitt, and France, personified by a caricature of Napoleon, are carving out their areas of interest around the globe.29
30Wars of Liberation Napoleon invades Spain in 1807 04/28/11Napoleon invades Spain in 1807Places brother Joseph on throneSpanish respond with guerilla warfareFrench are vulnerable to this approachLong Spanish campaign drained French
32Wars of Liberation (cont’d) 04/28/11Rest of Europe inspired by French troubleRussians stand up to NapoleonDisastrous Russian campaign, 1812Battle of Leipzig, 1813
33Chronology: Napoleonic Europe 04/28/11Chronology: Napoleonic EuropeChronology: Napoleonic Europe33
34Congress of Vienna Viscount Castlereagh (1769-1822) Quadruple Alliance 04/28/11Viscount Castlereagh ( )British foreign secretaryKey person in achieving eventual agreementQuadruple AllianceBritain, Austria, Russia, PrussiaFormed to preserve settlement
35Congress of Vienna (cont’d) 04/28/11Agreement that no single power should dominate EuropeConstructed series of states to block French expansionHoly Roman Empire not revivedEstablished the rule of legitimate monarchsRejected hint of republican politics
36Congress of Vienna (cont’d) 04/28/11Quadruple Alliance, 1815France restored as fifth powerLittle desire to punish a defeated FranceDetermined to prevent outbreak of future warHelped prevent major European war until 1914
37Map 22–3 Europe 1815, after the Congress of Vienna 04/28/11Map 22–3 Europe 1815, after the Congress of ViennaMap 22–3 Europe 1815, after the Congress of Vienna. The Congress of Vienna achieved the post-Napoleonic territorial adjustments shown on the map. The most notable arrangements dealt with areas along France’s borders (the Netherlands, Prussia, Switzerland, and Piedmont) and in Poland and northern Italy.37
38Wars of Independence in Latin America 04/28/11Wars of Independence in Latin America38
39Latin America Spain one of defeated powers in 1763 04/28/11Spain one of defeated powers in 1763Charles III ( )Convinced American colonial system had to be changedAbolished monopolies of Seville and CadizOpened more South American and Caribbean ports to tradeAttempted to make tax collection more fair
40Latin America (cont’d) 04/28/11Returned colonies to direct Spanish control
41First Movements Haiti achieved independence in 1804 04/28/11Haiti achieved independence in 1804Slave revolt led by Toussaint L’Ouverture ( )Jean-Jacques Dessalines ( )Popular uprisingGreat exception in Latin America
42Toussaint L’Ouverture 04/28/11Toussaint L’OuvertureToussaint L’Ouverture. L’Ouverture (1744–1803) began the revolt that led to Haitian independence in 1804.42
43First Movements (cont’d) 04/28/11Movement for independence usually led byCreole eliteMerchants, landowners, professional people
4404/28/11A Free Person of Color from St. Domingue Demands Recognition of His StatusA Free Person of Color from St. Domingue Demands Recognition of His Status44
45Creole Goals04/28/11Creoles determined that political independence should not causeSocial disruptionLoss of their social and economic privilegesFew Indians, blacks, mestizos, mulattos, or slaves involved in movements
46Creole Goals (cont’d) Few benefited from end of Iberian rule 04/28/11Few benefited from end of Iberian ruleTransforming eventsNapoleon toppling Portuguese (1807) and Spanish (1808) monarchies
47Map 22–4 The Independence Campaigns of San Martín and Bolívar 04/28/11Map 22–4 The Independence Campaigns of San Martín and BolívarMap 22–4 The Independence Campaigns of San Martín and Bolívar. José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar fought for independence in different parts of South America in the early 1800s. In 1822 they collaborated to liberate Quito, but they disagreed over post-independence political structures: San Martín was a monarchist, while Bolívar was a republican.47
48San Martín in Río de la Plata 04/28/11First region to assert independenceRío de la Plata (Argentina)Ruling junta pushes for independence elsewhereJosé de San Martín ( )Leads troops across AndesOccupied Santiago, Chile, by 1817Bernardo O’Higgins ( ) made supreme leader of Chile
49San Martín in Río de la Plata (cont’d) 04/28/11San MartínControl of Peru in 1821
50Simón Bolívar (1783-1830) Similar process of liberation in the north 04/28/11Similar process of liberation in the northCivil war in Venezuela ( )Bolivar invaded Venezuelan again in 1816Named president in 1821Meeting with San Martín in 1822Disagreements on future of Latin AmericaSan Martín: monarchies; Bolívar: republics
5104/28/11Simón BolívarSimón Bolívar. Bolívar was the liberator of much of Latin America. He inclined toward a policy of political liberalism.51
53Independence in New Spain 04/28/11Drive for independence in New SpainRepresented conservative nature of elitesMiguel Hidalgo y Costilla ( )Creole priest who issued a call for rebellionLeader of 80,000 unorganized troopsCaptured and executed in 1811
54Independence in New Spain (cont’d) 04/28/11Threat posed by liberal constitution in SpainAgustín de Iturbide ( )Declared Mexico independent in 1821
55Brazilian Independence 04/28/11Came simply and peacefullyPrince regent Joao ( )Made Brazil a kingdom in 1815No longer merely a colony
56Brazilian Independence 04/28/11Joao’s son Pedro as regent ( )Pedro embraced Brazilian independenceBrazil became independent, 1822Pedro as first emperorSupport of proslavery elite
57Chronology: The Wars of Latin American Independence 04/28/11Chronology: The Wars of Latin American IndependenceChronology: The Wars of Latin American Independence57
58Toward the Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy 04/28/11Toward the Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy58
59Origins of Abolition Movement 04/28/11In 1750, few questioned slaveryBy 1888, slavery no longer existed in transatlantic economyAbolition – legacy of Enlightenment, revolutionsCrusade originated among religious writersInitial opposition among English Quakers
60Origins of Abolition Movement (cont’d) 04/28/11Adam Smith’s philosophyUndermined economic defense of slave laborWilliam Wilberforce
61Abolitionism in the Americas 04/28/11Some slaves took matter into own handsLargest emancipation – HaitiSlave revolt of 1794Revolt and independence of HaitiAmerican Congress made slave trading a capital offense in 1824
62Map 22–5 The Haitian Revolution 04/28/11Map 22–5 The Haitian RevolutionMap 22–5 The Haitian Revolution62
63Abolition British formed Abolition Society in 1823 Slavery banned by 04/28/11British formed Abolition Society in 1823Slavery banned byBritish, 1833Portuguese, 1836Swedes, 1847Danes, 1848Dutch, 1863
64Abolition (cont’d) British established Sierra Leone in 1787 04/28/11British established Sierra Leone in 1787Liberia established in 1817Efforts of American Colonization Society
6504/28/11Spanish Slave ShipSpanish Slave Ship. After 1807 the British Royal Navy patrolled the West African coast attempting to intercept slave-trading ships. In 1846 the British ship HMS Albatross captured a Spanish slave ship, the Albanoz, and freed the slaves. A British officer depicted the appalling conditions in the slavehold in this watercolor.65
66Review Questions04/28/11How was the Estates General transformed into the National Assembly? How does the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen reflect the social and political values of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment? What were the chief ways in which France and its government were reorganized in the early years of the revolution?
67Review Questions04/28/11What was the revolution of 1792, and why did it occur? What were the causes of the Reign of Terror, and what political coalitions made it possible?
68Review Questions04/28/11How did Napoleon rise to power? What were his major domestic achievements? Did his rule more nearly fulfill or betray the ideals of the French Revolution?
69Review Questions04/28/11What were the results of the Napoleonic Wars? Why did Napoleon decide to invade Russia? Why did he fail? What were the major outlines of the peace settlement achieved by the Congress of Vienna?
70Review Questions04/28/11How was the Haitian Revolution influenced by the French Revolution? How did the Haitian Revolution influence other revolutionary movements in the Americas? How did it influence conservative movements in the Americas?
71Review Questions04/28/11What political changes took place in Latin America in the twenty years between and 1824? What were the main reasons for Creole discontent with Spanish rule?
72Review Questions04/28/11A motto of the French Revolution was “liberty, equality, and fraternity.” How might one compare the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Latin American wars of independence in regard to the achievement of these goals? Which groups in each country or region benefited from the revolution, and which gained little or nothing from the changes?
73Review Questions04/28/11What intellectual and religious factors contributed to the rise of the antislavery movement? To what extent did nonhumanitarian forces contribute to it? What opposition did it meet? Why did slavery receive a new lease on life during the same years that the antislavery movement emerged?
74Review Questions04/28/11What, if any, advances did women make as a result of these revolutions in the transatlantic world? Which groups tended to benefit most, and which least, from the events discussed in this chapter?