Presentation on theme: "What types of crime does unemployment rate effect?"— Presentation transcript:
What types of crime does unemployment rate effect?
It has been theorized that unemployment tends to propel persons into crime to enable them to survive economically and also that unemployment tends to increase the criminal behavior among the unemployed (Tarling). David Cantor and Kenneth C. Land found that for burglary, robbery and larceny-theft, there is evidence to support the claim that unemployment increases the frequency of those crimes. Unemployment also has an effect on homicide and motor vehicle theft. However, they found no consistent association between rape and aggravated assault and unemployment (Cantor and Land). Karin Edmark’s study revealed that unemployment only has a positive and significant effect on property crimes such as burglary, car theft and bike theft (Edmark).
Stephen Raphael and Rudolf Winter-Ebmer discovered that a substantial portion of the decline in property crime rates during the 1990s is attributable to the decline in the unemployment rate. The evidence for violent crime is considerably weaker. A closer analysis of the violent crime of rape yielded some evidence that the employment rates of males are weakly related to state rape rates (Raphael and Winter-Ebmer). In order to examine theoretical perspectives on crime, cross- national data on inequality, unemployment, and crime rates were analyzed by Marvin D. Krohn. He hypothesized that nations having a high rate of unemployment and an inequitable distribution of income would have a high crime rate. The results indicated a positive relationship between the rate of unemployment and homicide rates and a small negative relationship between unemployment rate and (1) the rates of property crime, and (2) the total crime rates (Krohn).
Cantor, David and Land, Kenneth C. “Unemployment and Crime Rates in the Post- World War II United States: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis.” American Sociological Review. Vol. 50 (3). Jun., 1985. uid=3739832&uid=213&uid=376491993&uid=2&uid=70&uid=3&uid=376491983&uid=37 39256&uid=60&sid=21101399311323. Edmark, Karin. “Unemployment and Crime:Is there a Connection?” The Scandinavian Journal of Economics. Vol. 107 (2). http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3441110?searchUrl=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSe arch%3FQuery%3Dunemployment%2Band%2Bcrime%26Search%3DSearch%26wc%3Don% 26fc%3Doff%26globalSearch%3D%26sbbBox%3D%26sbjBox%3D%26sbpBox%3D&Search=y es&uid=3739832&uid=2134&uid=376491993&uid=2&uid=70&uid=3&uid=376491983&u id=3739256&uid=60&sid=21101399522213. Krohn, Marvin D. “Inequality, Unemployment and Crime: A Cross-National Analysis.” The Sociological Quarterly. Vol. 17(3). June 1976. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1976.tb00984.x/abstract. Raphael, Steven and Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf. “Unemployment on Crime.” Journal of Law and Economics. Vol. 44(1). April 2001. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.1086/320275?uid=3739832&uid=2134&uid=2&uid= 70&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21101399724143. Tarling, R. “Unemployment and Crime.” Research Bulletin Vol. 14. 1982. https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=86411.
“US States Crime 2004 -2005 Crimes per 100,000 and Ranking” (http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/US_S tates_Rate_Ranking.html) “State and Regional Unemployment, 2005 Annual Averages.” Bureau of Labor Statistics (http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/ srgune_03012006.pdf)
1.) Copy and Paste Crime Rates 2.) Copy and Paste (Transpose) unemployment data for all 50 states 3.) Delete 2004 Data 4.) Copy and Paste States, crime specific rates and unemployment rates 5.) Group unemployment rates 2.8-4.8 = Low 4.8-6.8 = Medium 6.8-8.8 = High 6.) Make Pivot Tables and Graphs for each specific crime and unemployment rates. Summarize Data by average.