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Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon1 Sexual Coercion Chapter 18 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 2 Sexual Coercion Rape: The Most Intimate Crime of Violence Sexual Abuse of Children Sexual Harassment
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 3 Rape Sexual intercourse that takes place as a result of force or threats of force rather than consent Forcible rape Sexual intercourse with a nonconsenting person obtained by the use of force or the threat of force Statutory rape Sexual intercourse with a person who is below the age of consent Sexual assault Any sexual activity that involves the use of force or the threat of force
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 4 Rape Incidence of Rape Estimated that 191,000 women sexually assaulted in 2004 72,000 rapes and 40,000 attempted rapes About every 7 minutes, a woman was reported to be raped. But crime statistics underreport the incidence of rape Majority of rapes are not reported
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 5 Rape Types of Rapes Stranger rape Rape by assailant previously unknown to the person Assailant typically chooses a vulnerable victim Acquaintance rape Rape by acquaintance of the person who is assaulted About 2/3 of rapes are committed by acquaintances of the victim. Is much less likely to be reported to the police May not perceive sexual assault by acquaintances as rapes Only about 1/4 of the women in a national college survey who had been sexually assaulted saw themselves as rape victims.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 6 Rape Date rape 10% to 20% of women report being forced into sexual intercourse by dates A man who commits date rape may believe that acceptance of a date indicates willingness to have sexual relations. Although the motive may be sexual, the man committed a violent crime. The gang rape Exercise of power and expression of anger against women More vicious than individual assaults
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 7 Rape Male rape Prevalence is unknown Estimated that one in ten rape survivors is a man Most men who rape other men are heterosexual. Sexual motives may be absent Most, but not all, occur in prison settings Male rape survivors may suffer traumatic effects similar to female survivors.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 8 Rape Partner rape May be more common than date rape Men who are less accepting of traditional stereotypes about sexual relationships are less likely to commit partner rape. Often occurs within a context of relationship violence, battering, and physical intimidation Long-term effects on survivors are similar to those experienced by survivors of stranger rape. Rape by women Although it is rare, women have raped men and have aided and abetted men who are raping another woman.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 9 Rape Social Attitudes, Myths, and Cultural Factors That Encourage Rape Rape myths are rationalizations for violence. Myths create a social climate that legitimizes rape Myths are related to other social attitudes Gender-role stereotyping Perception of sex as adversarial Acceptance of violence in relationships Male socialization and gender typing The traditional masculine gender role is related to acceptance of violence against women and rape.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 10 Rape Psychological Characteristics of Rapists: Who Are They? There is no single type of rapist. Many have antisocial personalities Compared to other men, self-identified sexually aggressive men are more likely to: Condone rape and violence against women Hold traditional gender-role attitudes Be sexually experienced and hostile toward women Engage in sex to express social dominance Be sexually aroused by depictions of rape Be irresponsible and lack a social conscience Have peer groups that pressure them into sexual activity
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 11 Rape The motives of rapists: The search for types Anger rape: vicious, unplanned rape triggered by feelings of intense anger and resentment toward women Power rape: motivated by desire to control and dominate the person Account for over half of rapes Sadistic rape: highly ritualized, savage rape
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 12 Rape Adjustment of Rape Survivors Survivors tend to experience: A crisis, which involves shock, loss of self- esteem, and lessened capacity for making decisions – can last for weeks Both physical and psychological effects Problems in the workplace and in relationships with spouses or partners Disturbances in sexual functioning
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 13 Rape Rape and psychological disorders Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) A type of stress reaction common among rape survivors that is brought on by a traumatic event and is characterized by: Flashbacks of the experience in the form of disturbing dreams or intrusive recollections A sense of emotional numbing or restricted range of feelings Heightened body arousal Women who blame themselves for the rape tend to suffer more severe depression and adjustment problems, including sexual problems.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 14 Rape If you are raped… Don’t change anything about your body Strongly consider reporting the incident to police Ask a relative or friend to take you to a hospital Seek help in an assertive way Question health professionals Call a rape hotline or crisis center for advice
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 15 Rape Treatment of Rape Survivors Crisis intervention and long-term adjustment Provide support and information to help develop strategies for coping Psychotherapy Rape crisis centers and hotlines Help mobilize social support of family, friends, religious leaders, and health care providers
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 16 Rape Rape Prevention Elimination of rape will require changes in attitudes Education can reduce the incidence Suggestions for avoiding date rape Communicate sexual limits Meet new dates in public places; do not get drunk State refusal definitively Become aware of your fears Pay attention to one’s “vibes,” gut-level feelings Be especially cautious if in a new environment Don’t let ex-lovers or ex-boyfriends into residence if they cannot be trusted
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 17 Rape Confronting a rapist: Should you fight, flee, or plead? No one suggestion is effective in all situations. Effective self-defense uses multiple strategies. It may be impossible to think through options clearly when attacked. Advised that women practice responses
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 18 Sexual Abuse of Children Most abused children are girls Patterns of Abuse Ranges from exhibitionism, kissing, fondling, to sexual intercourse Sexual relations between adults and children under the age of consent is a crime in every state. About 18% of boys and 25% of girls are sexually abused. Abused children rarely report the abuse. Due to fear of retaliation or they believe that they will be blamed for it
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 19 Sexual Abuse of Children Most molesters are close to the children they abuse: relatives, steprelatives, family friends, and neighbors. Family members are more likely to suffer repeated abuse. Genital fondling is the most common type of abuse. Average age of first sexual abuse ranges from 6 to12 for girls and 7 to 10 for boys. Types of abusers Overwhelming majority are males, most are adults, some are adolescents Male abusers more likely to have been abused themselves Female abusers may be more common than previously thought
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 20 Sexual Abuse of Children Pedophilia A paraphilia involving persistent or recurrent sexual attraction to children Almost all pedophiles are males Abuse patterns vary and there is no consistent personality profile of the pedophile. May have complex origins Some were sexually abused as children Often unstable, disagreeable, angry, impulsive, and mistrustful
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 21 Sexual Abuse of Children Pedophilia Distorted reality of pedophiles: See children as sexual beings who want to have sex with adults Believe that sex does not harm children and may be beneficial Think of themselves as important enough to have sex with whomever they want See others as dangerous and controlling Believe they cannot control their impulses
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 22 Sexual Abuse of Children Incest: Breaking Taboos Incest Marriage or sexual relations between people who are so closely related by “blood” that sexual relations are prohibited and punishable by law Perspectives on the incest taboo To prevent harmful effects of inbreeding Cooperation theory Emphasizes the importance of cooperative ties between family groups to the survival of the society
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 23 Sexual Abuse of Children Types of incest Father-daughter incest Often begins affectionately and progresses to sexual behavior Brother-sister incest Most common type; most likely to be harmful when it is forced or when parental response is harsh Family factors in incest Incest often occurs within the context of family disruption. Marriages tend to involve an uneven power relationship. Sexual relations between the spouses are troubled. Abused daughters may assume mother’s responsibilities. Incest is often repeated from generation to generation.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 24 Sexual Abuse of Children Effects of Sexual Abuse on Children Involve great psychological harm and physical consequences Abused children commonly “act out” Younger children display aggressive or antisocial behavior Older children abuse drugs Many show signs of posttraumatic stress disorder. Sexual development may be adversely affected. May lead to psychological problems in adulthood
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 25 Sexual Abuse of Children Prevention of Sexual Abuse of Children Help children understand what sexual abuse is and how they can protect themselves Teach adults signs of sexual abuse and require them to report suspected abuse to authorities Treatment of Survivors of Sexual Abuse With adults, psychotherapy can improve self-esteem and ability to develop intimate relationships. Many therapists recommend a multifaceted treatment approach with children and their families.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 26 Treatment of Rapists and Child Molesters What Does Treatment Mean? Goal is to help society eliminate problem behavior Common form of treatment is group therapy However, majority of incarcerated sex offenders receive little to no treatment in prison. Results of these prison-based programs are mixed Medical treatments such as castration Innovative programs use a variety of techniques. Empathy training; covert sensitization; medical interventions, including surgical castration or the use of antiandrogen drugs
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 27 Sexual Harassment Deliberate or repeated unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature considered to be unwelcome by the recipient: Verbal harassment or abuse Subtle or direct pressure for sexual activity Remarks about person’s clothing, body, or sex acts Leering or ogling a person’s body Unwelcome touching, patting, or pinching Brushing against a person’s body Demands for sexual favors with threats concerning one’s job Physical assault
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 28 Sexual Harassment Victims can experience physical illness, anxiety, irritability, low self-esteem, and anger Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Most severe form involves supervisor who demands sexual favors as a condition of employment or advancement Laws do exist to protect workers, but proving charges of sexual harassment can be difficult.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 29 Sexual Harassment Sexual Harassment on Campus Overall, 25% to 30% of students report at least one incident of sexual harassment in college. Males are about twice as likely as females to commit sexual harassment. Most forms of harassment involve unequal power relationships. However, students can and do harass professors. Peer harassment Many high school and junior high school students report being sexually harassed. Negative attitudes toward school and lower grades can result
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 30 Sexual Harassment How to Resist Sexual Harassment Convey a professional attitude Discourage harassing behavior Avoid being alone with the harasser Maintain a record Talk with the harasser Write harasser a letter Seek support File a complaint Seek legal help