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Chapter Eight Females as Victims This multimedia presentation and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: * any public performance or display, including transmission of any over a network; * preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; * any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Sexual Violence Definition –Sexual violence is any intentional act or omission that results in physical, emotional, or financial injury to a woman. –The phrase “financial injury” is included to cover sexual harassment situations in which women have been terminated from employment for refusing to engage in sexual acts with their supervisors. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Theories of Sexual Violence Sexual motivation – most current research dismisses this theory Socialization – holds that in our society, young boys are taught to be aggressive, forceful, tough, and a winner in any sport or activity Machoism – holds that men who believe in male machoism will be more aggressive toward women. Includes a set of beliefs that include a view of women as objects simply to be added to a numerical list of sexual conquests Biological Factors – Argues that rape is a male instinctive reaction, which is a drive to perpetuate the species Psychological Forces – hold that men rape because they suffer from some sort of personality disorder or mental illness Culture of Violence – states that our society is a violent environment which encourages some men to use violence to obtain sex Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Rape Typologies –Power Rape Involves the offender seeking power and control over his victim by use of force or threats The sexual assault is evidence of conquest and domination –Anger Rape Involves the expression of anger, rage, contempt, or hatred toward the victim Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Stranger Rape Definition –Stranger rape is an unlawful act of sexual intercourse with another person against that person’s will by force, fear, or trick, with a person who is not known to the victim Legal Aspects –Many times during a rape, the offender will perform or attempt to perform a variety of acts including vaginal, oral, and anal sex –Each act is considered a separate and distinct crime Victim Selection –One survey of rapists found that the most common characteristic of victims was that the victims were perceived as “easy prey” or vulnerable Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Acquaintance Rape Introduction –Using the figures reported in Rape in America, in one year, 68,300 women were raped by their boyfriend or ex-boyfriend, and 143,430 women were raped by other known acquaintances Definition –Acquaintance rape is the unlawful sexual intercourse accomplished by force or fear with a person known to the victim who is not related by blood or marriage Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Marital Rape Historical Perspective –Marital exemption to rape can be traced to Sir Matthew Hale, a 17 th century English jurist from his writing “But the husband cannot be guilty of rape committed by himself upon his lawful wife, for by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract the wife hath given herself in this kind unto the husband which she cannot retract.” –The feminist movement in the 1970s sought to change the laws to allow for charges to be brought against a husband who raped his wife. It was a hard fought battle Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Factors Contributing to Marital Rape –Historical Perspective toward the Family –Spousal Immunity –Economics –Preoccupation with Violence Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Stalking Stalking may be defined as a knowing, purposeful course of conduct directed at a particular person that can cause a reasonable person to believe that she or he is in danger of physical injury or death to her/himself, or a member of her/his immediate family member. Cyberstalking involves sending s or hacking into s or other personal accounts while pursuing the victim on the internet. The four most common types of stalking behaviors are: 1) erotomania; 2) love obsessional; 3) simple obsessional; 4) false victimization syndrome Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Sexual Harassment Introduction –Sexual harassment is a widespread phenomenon –One of the first work-related surveys of 9000 women found that nine of ten women reported instances of sexual harassment Definition –Sexual harassment is the imposition of any unwanted condition on any person’s employment because of that person’s sex. –Includes jokes, direct taunting, disruption of work, vandalism or destruction of property, and physical attacks Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
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