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Chapter Seventeen Sexual Coercion: Harassment, Aggression, and Abuse.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Seventeen Sexual Coercion: Harassment, Aggression, and Abuse."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Seventeen Sexual Coercion: Harassment, Aggression, and Abuse

2 Sexual Harassment The abuse of power for sexual ends –Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors –Other verbal or physical sexual conduct as condition for schooling or employment Creation of a hostile environment –Interferes with performance at school or at work Illegal

3 What Is Sexual Harassment? Unwelcome sexual advances Requests for sexual favors Verbal or physical contact of a sexual nature when: –Explicitly or implicitly affects and individual’s employment –Unreasonably interferes with an individuals work performance –Creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment

4 Flirtation versus Harassment Whether you have equal power Whether you are approached appropriately Whether you wish to continue contact Different cultural expectations lead to misinterpretation Men and women perceive actions differently

5 Harassment in School and College Harassment in elementary and high school –Often called ”fun” or “teasing”, but intimidates, humiliates, and embarrasses victims –1/3 of high school girls and 1 in 8 boys want to quit school due to harassment –Most often happens when boys are in groups Harassment in college –Over 60% of male and female college students have been harassed by students or staff

6 Harassment in the Workplace Many women are not informed about sexual harassment Most common in formerly all-male occupations Recent survey showed 21% of women, 7% of men were sexually harassed at work Romantic relationships in the work place are problematic

7 Harassment and Discrimination Against Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered People Heterosexual bias – heterosexism –Ignoring existence of lesbian, gay, bisexual people –Segregating gay, lesbian, bisexual people –Lumping gay, lesbian, bisexual people into larger category Prejudice, Discrimination, and Violence –Anti-gay prejudice –Homophobia –Gay bashing

8 Harassment and Discrimination Against Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered People Effects on heterosexuals Discrimination and anti-discrimination laws Violence against gay men and lesbian women Personal sources of anti-gay prejudice Ending anti-gay prejudice

9 Sexual Aggression Principal motive is power, not sexual pleasure Sexual aggression: broad term for sexual activity performed against a person’s will Sexual coercion: arguing, pleading, and cajoling, as well as force and threat of force Sexual assault: forced sexual contact that does not necessarily include penile-vaginal intercourse

10 The Nature and Incidence of Rape Does not give the victim pleasure Forces intimate contact May involve a man or woman victim Women fear rape throughout their lives

11 Prevalence in the United States Sexual assault occurs every 2.5 minutes 90% victims of sexual crime were women 1.5 victims per 1000 women over the age of victims per 1000 men over the age of 12 Over 70% of victims knew assailant

12 Rape Force was used in 80% of reported assaults 67% of victims showed signs of general body trauma 27% of assaults involved the use of a weapon Defined: forced vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse, 18% of women and 3% of men in the U.S. have been raped Over half of victims report the assault occurred before they were 18 years old

13 Myths about Rape Rape is a crime of passion Women want to be raped Women are raped only by strangers Women could avoid rape if they really wanted to Women cry rape for revenge Rapists are crazy or psychotic Most rapists are a different race than their victims Men cannot control their sexual urges Rape is “no big deal” Men cannot be raped

14 Forms of Rape Date rape Stranger rape Marital rape Gang rape Statutory rape Male rape

15 Date Rape Usually not planned Drug/alcohol use by assailant or victim in 70% of cases Lifetime incidence for women 13-27% Confusion over consent Post refusal sexual persistence A date raper profile Acquaintance rape

16 Motivations for Rape Anger rape –Physically violent, victims often hospitalized Power rape –Act of dominance to restore assailant’s sense of control Sadistic rape –Brutal, victim often severely injured –Least frequent

17 The Aftermath of Rape African American women less likely than Whites to report rape, seek treatment Rape trauma syndrome –Depression, anxiety, restlessness, guilt –Symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) –31% of rape victims develop PTSD Effects on sexuality –Fear of sex, lack of desire

18 Child Sexual Abuse Any sexual interaction between an adult and a prepubertal child—including nonphysical contact Extra familial: abuse by unrelated people Intra familial: abuse by relatives, step relatives Nonpedophilic: abuse—abuse not sexually motivated, usually to get power, affection May involve force, threat, manipulation, pressure Most victims 8-12 years old; boys and girls equally likely to be abused

19 Preconditions for Child Sexual Abuse Emotional congruence: fulfills some emotional need Sexual attraction to the child Blockage: does not find alternative sexual outlets Overcoming internal inhibitions against acting on motivation Overcoming external obstacles to committing sexual abuse Undermining or overcoming a child’s potential resistance

20 Intra-familial Sexual Abuse Incest Father-daughter sexual abuse Brother-sister sexual abuse Uncle-niece sexual abuse –Most common form

21 Children at Risk Female children Preadolescent children (ages 10-12) Children who are vulnerable because –they are separated from their parents –their parents cannot supervise them –their relationships with parents are poor –their parents are unavailable –their parents are in conflict –they live with a stepfather

22 Initial Effects of Child Sexual Abuse Emotional disturbances –Fear, anger, hostility, guilt, shame Physical consequences –Changes in sleeping, eating, pregnancy, STIs Sexual disturbances –Open masturbation, sexual preoccupation Social disturbances –School problems, running away, early marriages

23 Long-term Effects of Sexual Abuse Depression Self-destructive tendencies Somatic disturbances and dissociation Negative self-concept—low self-esteem, isolation Interpersonal relationship difficulties Revictimization: raped again as adult Sexual problems

24 Sexual Abuse Trauma Traumatic sexualization –Inappropriately associate sexual behaviors and emotions Betrayal –Adult survivors find trust difficult, may become dependent or angry Powerlessness –Fear, anxiety, sense of not control Stigmatization –Guilt, shame

25 Treatment Programs Therapy with intact family Help family come to terms with the abuse Treat individuals as well as family May include substance abuse programs Self help programs

26 Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Children –Stress that abuse is not the child’s fault –Say no, get away, tell a trusted adult Parents –Help parents discover abuse, identify warning signs Professionals –Teachers, physicians, police, mental health workers


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