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5.3 Relative pronouns © 2015 by Vista Higher Learning, Inc. All rights reserved The relative pronoun que Echa unas monedas en esas maquinitas que ha puesto el ayuntamiento y lo deja aquí al lado.
5.3 Relative pronouns © 2015 by Vista Higher Learning, Inc. All rights reserved Que (that, which, who) is the most frequently used relative pronoun (pronombre relativo). It can refer to people or things, subjects or objects, and can be used in restrictive clauses (without commas) or nonrestrictive clauses (with commas). Note that while some relative pronouns may be omitted in English, they must always be used in Spanish. El incendio que vimos ayer destruyó la tercera parte del bosque. The fire (that) we saw yesterday destroyed a third of the forest. Los ciudadanos que van a la manifestación exigen respuestas del gobierno. The citizens who are going to the protest demand answers from the government. La inundación fue causada por la lluvia, que ha durado más de dos semanas. The flood was caused by the rain, which has lasted over two weeks. Relative pronouns are used to connect short sentences or clauses to create longer, more fluid sentences. Unlike the interrogative words qué, quién(es), and cuál(es), relative pronouns never carry accent marks. ¡ATENCIÓN!
5.3 Relative pronouns © 2015 by Vista Higher Learning, Inc. All rights reserved In a restrictive (without commas) clause where no preposition or personal a precedes the relative pronoun, always use que. Las ballenas que encontraron en la playa estaban vivas. The whales they found on the beach were alive.
5.3 Relative pronouns © 2015 by Vista Higher Learning, Inc. All rights reserved El que/La que After prepositions, que follows the definite article: el que, la que, los que or las que. The article must agree in gender and number with the antecedent (the noun or pronoun to which it refers). When referring to things (but not people), the article may be omitted after short prepositions, such as en, de, and con. La mujer para la que trabajo llegará a las seis. El edificio en (el) que viven es viejo. The woman (whom) I work for will arrive at six. The building (that) they live in is old.
5.3 Relative pronouns © 2015 by Vista Higher Learning, Inc. All rights reserved El que, la que, los que, and las que are also used for clarification to refer to a previously mentioned person or thing. Hablé con los vecinos que tienen perros pero no con los que tienen gatos. I talked to the neighbors who have dogs but not to the ones who have cats. Si puedes optar entre dos compañías, elige la que paga más. If you can choose between two companies, pick the one that pays more.
5.3 Relative pronouns © 2015 by Vista Higher Learning, Inc. All rights reserved El cual/La cual El cual, la cual, los cuales, and las cuales are generally interchangeable with el que, la que, los que, and las que after prepositions. They are often used in more formal speech or writing. Note that when el cual and its forms are used, the definite article is never omitted. El edificio en el cual viven es viejo. The building in which they live is old.
5.3 Relative pronouns © 2015 by Vista Higher Learning, Inc. All rights reserved Quien/Quienes Quien (sing.) and quienes (pl.) only refer to people. Quien(es) can therefore generally be replaced by forms of el que and el cual, although the reverse is not always true. Los investigadores, quienes (los que/los cuales) estudian la erosión, son de Ecuador. The researchers, who are studying erosion, are from Ecuador. El investigador de quien (del que/del cual) hablaron era mi profesor. The researcher (whom) they spoke about was my professor. When used with a or de, the contractions al que/al cual and del que/del cual are formed. ¡ATENCIÓN!
5.3 Relative pronouns © 2015 by Vista Higher Learning, Inc. All rights reserved Although que and quien(es) may both refer to people, their use depends on the structure of the sentence. In restrictive clauses (without commas), only que is used if no preposition or personal a is necessary. If a preposition or personal a is necessary, quien (or a form of el que/el cual) is used instead. La gente que vive en la capital está harta del smog. The people who live in the capital are tired of the smog. Esperamos una respuesta de los biólogos a quienes (a los que/a los cuales) llamamos. We’re waiting for a response from the biologists (whom) we called.
5.3 Relative pronouns © 2015 by Vista Higher Learning, Inc. All rights reserved In nonrestrictive clauses (with commas) that refer to people, que is more common in spoken Spanish, but quien(es) (or a form of el que/el cual) is preferred in written speech. Juan y María, que viven conmigo, me regañan si dejo las luces prendidas. Juan and María, who live with me, scold me if I leave the lights on. Las expertas, quienes por fin concedieron la entrevista, no mencionaron la sequía. The experts, who finally granted the interview, didn’t mention the drought.
5.3 Relative pronouns © 2015 by Vista Higher Learning, Inc. All rights reserved The relative adjective cuyo The relative adjective cuyo (cuya, cuyos, cuyas) means whose and agrees in number and gender with the noun it precedes. When asking to whom something belongs, use ¿de quién(es)?, not a form of cuyo. El equipo, cuyo proyecto aprobaron, viajará a las islas Galápagos en febrero. The team, whose project they approved, will travel to the Galapagos Islands in February. La colega, cuyas ideas mejoraron el plan, no tiene tiempo para realizar el proyecto. The colleague, whose ideas improved the plan, doesn’t have time to do the project. ¿De quién es este mapa de Venezuela? Whose map of Venezuela is this? Es mío, pero no es un mapa. Es un atlas cuyos autores son venezolanos. It’s mine, but it’s not a map. It’s an atlas whose authors are Venezuelan.
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