¿Qué son las frases relativas? Son aquellas frases relativas a o relacionadas con algo o alguien, al cual o al que estas frases van subordinadas mediante un pronombre relativo: que, quien, el cual, cuyo, etc. - ¿Quién es María? - María es la chica que vino ayer (Frase relativa) “…que vino ayer” o “…la cual vino ayer” tiene relación o dice algo de la chica para identificarla. Ya sabemos que María no es otra si no la chica que vino ayer.
Relative clauses María is the girl who came yesterday or María is the girl that came yesterday María is the girl who came yesterday or María is the girl that came yesterday This is the house which I bought last week or This is the house that I bought last week This is the house which I bought last week or This is the house that I bought last week
Relative clauses Two types of Relative clauses: Defining: closely connected with the antecedent This is not something that would disturb me Non-defining: Nouns which are already definite. They add something to the noun by given more information about it. They are not essential and can be omitted. The non-restrictive relative clauses are always between commas It’s all based on violence, which I hate
Defining clauses Defining clauses Relative Pronouns PERSONAL ANTECEDENT According to the function in the sentences we have: (según la función que desempeñen dentro de la frase) subject : WHO object : WHO/WHOM genitive: WHOSE (personal/non-personal antecedent) ( cuyo/a ) (they can be changed by THAT except WHOSE) (se pueden cambiar por THAT excepto WHOSE) subject : WHO object : WHO/WHOM genitive: WHOSE (personal/non-personal antecedent) ( cuyo/a ) (they can be changed by THAT except WHOSE) (se pueden cambiar por THAT excepto WHOSE) SUBJECT This is the man who came yesterday (formal) that (Informal) OBJECT This is the man whom you should know (formal) who (formal) that (Informal) GENITIVE This is the man whose wife works with you
Defining clauses Defining clauses Relative Pronouns SUBJECT There's still one thing which is not explained that OBJECT The house which you bought was my family’s that subject / object : WHICH (it can be substituted by THAT) genitive: WHOSE NON-PERSONAL ANTECEDENT:
Contact Clauses (omisión del pronombre). We leave out the relative pronoun (who/which/that) if it is not the subject in the sentence ( podemos omitir el pronombre cuando hace la función de objeto) This is the man whom you should know who that _____(No pronoun)_____ (Informal) This is the man you should know (informal) The house which you bought was my family’s that ____no pronoun____ you bought was my family’s The house you bought was my family’s
Defining clauses using preposition Las preposiciones pueden ser usadas delante o detrás de los pronombres relativos. Si escribimos la preposición delante del relativo sólo podemos usar WHOM. Pero las preposiciones se pueden escribir detrás de su verbo, entonces podemos usar otros pronombres relativos. to whom you spoke. This is the man whom you spoke to. who you spoke to that you spoke to you spoke to muy formal formal informal
Defining clauses using preposition Las preposiciones pueden ser usadas delante o detrás de los pronombres relativos. Si escribimos la preposición delante del relativo sólo podemos usar WHICH (cuando el antecedente no es persona). Pero las preposiciones se pueden escribir detrás de su verbo. Es entonces cuando podemos usar otros pronombres relativos. for which I was looking. This is the house which I was looking for. which I was looking for that I was looking for I was looking for muy formal formal informal
ACTIVITIES (defining clauses) This is the bank. It was robbed yesterday. A boy was in the bank at that time. His sister is in my class The man had two pistols. He robbed the bank He wore a mask. It made him look like Mickey Mouse. He came with a friend. He waited outside in the car. The woman was young. She gave him the money The bag was yellow. It contained the money The people were very frightened. They were in the bank A man did not know what to do. His mobile was ringing A woman tried to calm her daughter. She was crying The car was orange. The bank robbers escaped in that car The robber big didn't drive. His mask was obviously too The man was nervous. He drove the car He didn't wait at the traffic lights. They were red. A police officer stopped and arrested them. His car was parked at the next corner Join the sentences by means of a relative pronoun (Write all the possible options)
Non- defining Non- defining Relative pronouns Subject: WHO Object: WHOM / WHO Genitive: WHOSE (They cannot be substituted by “that”) Subject: WHO Object: WHOM / WHO Genitive: WHOSE (They cannot be substituted by “that”) Tom, who I haven’t seen for ages, is coming next week Personal Antecedent
Non- defining Non- defining Relative pronouns Subject: WHICH Object: WHICH Genitive: WHOSE (They cannot be substituted by “that”) Subject: WHICH Object: WHICH Genitive: WHOSE (They cannot be substituted by “that”) Non- Personal Antecedent "It's all based on violence,which I hate"
Activities (Non- defining clauses) Combine the sentences using relative clauses. Note that all relative clauses are non- defining. Samuel Johnson was the son of a bookseller. Samuel Johnson was born in 1709. Samuel Johnson In 1728, he went to Oxford. He studied at Pembroke College in Oxford. In 1728, he went Johnson had to leave Oxford without a degree. He was too poor to pay the fees. Johnson In 1737, Johnson moved to London. There he wrote poetry, essays and biographies. In 1737, Johnson In 1746, Johnson started to write his dictionary. It took him nine years to complete. In 1746, Johnson started His home at that time was in 17 Gough Square in London. It is a museum now. 17 Gough Square in London In this house, his wife died in 1752. Her name was Elizabeth Porter. In this house his wife In 1755, the work was published. It was called A Dictionary of the English Language. In 1755, the work Samuel Johnson died in 1784. He is buried in Westminster Abbey. Samuel Johnson
Relative adverbs WHEN = in/on which (time) (cuando) WHERE = in which (place) (donde) WHY = for which (reasons) (por lo que/ por la razón que...) WHAT = that which (lo que...) The year in which he died = The year when he diedThe day on which she arrived = The day when she arrivedThe house in which he lived = The house where he lived has no running water."What I mean is this..."
Activities - Relative adverbs Choose the correct relative adverb. This is the station. Emily met James here July and August are the months. Most people go on holiday these in these months Do you know the reason? So many people in the world learn English for this reason This is the church. Sue and Peter got married here Edinburgh is the town. Alexander Graham Bell was born in this town 25 December is the day. Children in Great Britain get their Christmas presents on this day. A famine was the reason. So many Irish people emigrated to the USA in the 19th century. A greengrocer's is a shop. You can buy vegetables in this shop The day was very nice. I arrived this day A horror film was the reason. I couldn't sleep last night.
MORE ACTIVITIES (Defining or Non-defining) JOIN BY MEANS OF A RELATIVE PRONOUNS (Write all the options) a. This man is my uncle. He came yesterday. b. That is the boy. His father made him study for two hours. c. The book is very interesting. You bought it yesterday. d. I want to know it. My friends told you. e. She was dancing with a student. He had a slight limp. f. I am looking after some children. They are very spoilt. g. The bed has no mattress. I slept on this bed. h. Romeo and Juliet were two lovers. Their parents hated each other. i. There wasn't any directory in the telephone box. I was phoning from this box. j. I was sitting on a chair. It suddenly collapsed. k. This is the story of a man. His wife suddenly loses her memory. l. I met Mary. She asked me to give you this. m. I met Mary,............................. n. Tom,....... was driving all day, was tired and wanted to stop. o. I was waiting for a man. He didn't turn up. p. The firm is sending me to New York. I work for this firm.