2They usually are used to express They introduce the subordinate clause – the part of the sentence that can not be alone.They usually are used to expressThatWhichWho(m)
3En español son:The most common is que and is used to refer to people and things in either the subject or the object position.It is the equivalent of the English:WhoWhomWhichThatSometimes we omit the relative pronoun in English, not the case in Spanish.
4La señora _____ es anciana compró la casa. cualcuyaquelo queThe woman that is old bought the house.Person is subject
5quien used to refer only to people This has the plural quienes, but does not change with masculine and feminine.Que or quien maybe be used when it is refering to the direct object pronoun (whom? or what?)If the relative pronoun occurs after a preposition you must use quien.
6La señorita de _____ estoy pensando no está aquí. quela quequiencuyaThe young lady of whom I am thinking is not here.
7La casa en ____ estoy pensando está en Oregon. quiencuyola quequeThe house that I am thinking about is in Oregon.
8The one These are used to talk about “the one” or “the ones” El que La queLos queLas que
9Mi tía, _____ es profesora es joven. la quelas quelo quelos queMy aunt, the one that is a professor is young.
10Mi tío ____es cocinero, llegará pronto. la quienlo quienel quela queMy uncle, the one who is a cook, will arrive soon.
11Whose Your Spanish teacher? Cuyo Cuya Cuyos Cuyas These are used to refer to people, not to ask questions, and they must agree in gender and number.
12Mi tía, ______ amiga es profesora, viene a visitarme hoy día. cuyocuyacuyascuyosMy aunt, whose friend is a professor, is coming to visit me today.
13Las gemelas, ____ madre era de España, tienen noventa años. cuyocuyacuyascuyosThe twins, whose mother was from Spain, are ninety years old.
14¿_______ es la tarea?CuyoDe quiénDe quién is used when who is an interrogative and is followed by a verb.
15The Neuter Pronouns Lo que – that which, what Lo que dije es verdad. – What I said is true.
16Final thoughts:It must be emphasized that the previous comments on the relative pronouns are intended as general guidelines only.In actual use, one will encounter exceptions to what has been said, especially with regard to the the use of el cual and el que, with the latter form tending to encroach more and more on the terrain of the former, particularly on the colloquial level, but also in written Spanish.