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Chapter Seven: Overweight, Underweight & Weight Control

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1 Chapter Seven: Overweight, Underweight & Weight Control
Identify the risks involved with being overweight or obese Explain how to determine if a person is either overweight or obese Identify how parents’ weight can affect children’s risk of becoming obese Describe ways to measure and define healthy body weight Identify factors that are associated with increasing central obesity

2 Chapter 9: Cont’d. Describe the detrimental effects of central obesity
Explain reasonable strategies for weight loss Identify the effect of lipoprotein lipase, # of fat cells and set-point on weight control Identify common eating disorders

3 Standards & Goals for Weight
U. S. Dietary Goal: Aim for a healthy weight (Suggested weights inside back cover) Overweight: % above the recommended weight Obese: 20% or more above recommendation Underweight: 10% or more below recommendation

4 Determining Percentage Above or Below Recommended Weight
Actual Body Weight Divided by Ideal Body Weight ABW = 195 IBW = 150 195/150 = 1.30 x 100 = 130% ABW = 165 IBW = 155 165/155 = 1.06 x 100 = 106%

5 Weight Guidelines Body Mass Index: (Healthy Ranges)
Formula on page 140 in text Chart on Inside Back Cover of Text Risks to Health below 18.5 or above 24.9 Body Composition: Weight (scale) is not a true indicator of body fat Men: % (>22-25% at risk) Women: % (>32-35% at risk) Methods of Measuring Body Fat

6 Causes of Obesity Genetics: Lipoprotein Lipase & Leptin:
Both parents obese increases chances up to 80% Neither parent obese chances as low as 10% Lipoprotein Lipase & Leptin: Enzyme which promotes fat storage High LPL increases fat storage Leptin: controls appetite

7 Causes of Obesity, cntd. Fat Cell Development Set-Point Theory
Obese child develops more fat cells More fat cells–more easily regain lost weight Set-Point Theory Body weight is physiologically regulated Metabolism adjusts with weight gain and loss Can help reduce fat set-point with exercise Hunger vs. Appetite (why do you eat?) Hunger: Physiological Appetite: Psychological

8 Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity
Obesity is the most significant cause of preventable death (2nd is tobacco use) Diabetes and Hypertension Body Composition--Central Obesity: Fat storage in central abdominal area (Intra-abdominal fat) increases risk of diabetes, stroke, hypertension and heart disease Smoking, alcohol use, menopause, increase central obesity—decrease with physical activity

9 Apple Shape

10 Pears and Apples

11 Measuring Central Obesity Risk
Waist to Hip Ratio: Divide waist circumference by hip circumference Ratio of .8 or greater for women and .95 or greater for men suggests greater risk Waist circumference: Men—no larger than 40 inches; women no larger than 35 inches 26/36 = .72 low risk 35/40 = .88 increased risk

12 Weight Loss Strategies
Aggressive Treatments: Drugs, Very Low Calorie Diets, Surgery—gastric banding Reasonable Weight Loss Strategies Diet: Reduction of kcalories each day; no less than kcalories per day 1 pound = 3500 kcalories Physical Activity: Speeds up metabolism; helps control appetite Behavior and Attitude (Behavior Modification): p. 155 in Text

13 Weight Gain Strategies
Physical Activity to build Muscle Energy-dense foods Meals and Snacks Increase portions Powdered milk or instant breakfast added to other foods or beverages

14 Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia
More prevalent in girls and young women from middle to upper-class families Anoxeria Nervosa: Refusal to eat Bulimia: Binge eating and purging or use of laxatives Athletes are also vulnerable to eating disorders

15 Review Questions 1. A woman weighs 160 pounds. According to the weight for height tables she should weight 135 pounds. According to the conventional definition of obesity, is she considered obese? (You must figure her % of standard or ideal weight) A. Yes B. No

16 2. The secret to safe and permanent weight loss is a sensible approach involving:
1. physical activity 2. realistic energy intake 3. hormones 4. behavior modification

17 3. The psychological desire to eat is referred to as:
A. Satiety B. Hunger C. Obesity D. Appetite

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