Presentation on theme: "Weight, Body Composition, and Health"— Presentation transcript:
1Weight, Body Composition, and Health Maintaining a HealthyBody Weight
2Weight and Health Goal is to determine if an individual is: UnderweightHealth risksHealthy weightOverweightHealth risks if overweight and overfatHuge health issue in US (see page 280)
3Increasing Prevalence of Obesity (BMI >30) among U.S. Adults _1991: Only four states had obesityrates greater than 15 percent.Key:<10%No Data10%–14%15%–19%20%–24%>25%_1996: Over half of the stateshad obesity rates greater than15 percent.2001: Only one state had an obesityrate below 15 percent, most hadobesity rates greater than 20 percentand one had an obesity rate greaterthan 25 percent.
4Obesity Prevalence9 states > 25% population obese
5Evaluating Weight/Health Status Compare weight to standard height-weight tablesTables are of limited value and use
6Evaluating Weight/Health Status Body Mass Index (BMI)Preferred measure for evaluating weightBased on significant amount of research
9* Increased health risks, see pg 262/263 BMIWeight/healthLess than 18.5Underweight*HealthyOverweight*Obese*Over 40Extreme obesity** Increased health risks, see pg 262/263
10Health Risks and Weight Weight ClassBMIHealth RisksOverweight25 – 29.9IncreasedClass I Obesity30 – 34.9Moderate to significantClass II Obesity35 – 39.9High/very highClass III Obesity> 40ExtremeUnderweight< 18.5Increased, may be significant
11BMIBMI is not a good measure for evaluating a body builder/serious athlete’s weight/healthLow end is an appropriate measure of being underweight for all
12BMICalculating BMIBMI = weight in pounds x(height, inches)2
13BMI Calculating the weight associated with a desired BMI: Weight, lbs = desired BMI x (height, inches)2703
14Calculating BMI BMI = weight in pounds x 703 (height, inches)2 Weight, lbs = desired BMI x (height, inches)2703
17Body FatNeed enough body fat to meet basic needs, but not so much as to increase health risks
18Body Fat Essential Body Fat: Males: 3% body fat Females: 12% body fat, 20% for reproductive health (menstruation and fertility)The latter value has recently come into question
19% Body Fat and Health Health risks increase when: Males: % body fat > 22 – 25 %Females: % body fat > 32 – 35 %Higher number is for those 40 and over.
20Measuring % Body Fat % body fat is difficult to measure accurately Common methods for measuring:Fat fold measures with calipersBioelectric impedanceUnderwater weighingMRI
21Distribution of Body Fat Matters Central Obesity (apple shape)Fat stored around the organs of the abdomenAssociated with increased risk of:Heart diseaseStrokeHypertensionSome cancers
22Distribution of Body Fat More on central obesityMore common in men and post-menopausal womenAssociated with smokingAbdominal fat is likely to go directly to the liver and be used to make VLDL LDL
23Distribution of Body Fat Lower-Body Obesity (pear shape)Fat stores are concentrated around the hips and thighsDoesn’t raise health risks as much as central obesity.See most often in women during reproductive years
24Waist Circumference Health risks increase when waist circumference is: Greater than 40” in menGreater than 35” in womenRisk is even greater if BMI is also > 24.9
25Health Risks and BMI Weight Class BMI Health Risks Overweight 25 – 29.9IncreasedClass I Obesity30 – 34.9Moderate to significantClass II Obesity35 – 39.9High/very highClass III Obesity> 40ExtremeUnderweight< 18.5Increased, may be significant
26Health Risks and Weight Health risks in each category increase if:Waist is > 40” men, > 35” womenSmokePhysically inactiveHigh blood glucoseHigh LDL levels or low HDL levelsFamily history of heart disease, stroke, hypertension
27What are the Health Issues? Health issues associated with being overweight or obese:Type II diabetesHypertensionHigh cholesterolHeart disease
28Health Issues Health issues continued Gall bladder disease OsteoarthritisRespiratory problemsHerniasVaricose veinsFlat feetComplications during surgery and pregnancy
29Health Issues - Underweight Increased risk of infection and illnessTired and weak (may be anemic)Amenorrhea (periods stop)Reduced fertilityComplications during surgeryPoor growth and development in kids
30Summary Methods for Evaluating Weight/Health Status Compare weight to standard tables (not useful)Calculate BMIDetermine % body fatEvaluate fat distributionMeasure waist circumferenceConsider other risk factors
31Who should lose weight?For people who are overweight or obese and have 2 or more risk factors weight loss is recommendedeven a small weight loss (10% of body weight) will significantly decrease health risks
32Who should maintain their weight? Individuals with a healthy BMI should maintain their current weight.Individuals who are overweight, do not have a high waist circumference, and have less than 2 risk factors should prevent further weight gain
33Who should gain weight?Individuals who are have a BMI of less than ______ should gain weight.
34Strategies for Weight Loss In general need to decrease caloric intake and increase physical activityGenerally need both for long-term weight loss
35Strategies for Weight Loss Set reasonable goals1-2 pounds per weekLoss of 10% of body weightMay set interim goals if a large amount of weight loss is desired
36Strategies for Weight Loss To lose 1 pound per week you need to reduce caloric intake (or increase caloric output) by:500 kcal per day = 3500 kcal/week
37Strategies for Weight Loss Avoid fad diets and weight loss supplementsAvoid very low calorie dietsNever less than 1200 kcal per dayWhy??
38Strategies for Weight Loss Increase level of physical activity30-45 minutes, 3-5 days a weekAdd weight bearing exercise to build muscleWhy?
40Strategies for Weight Loss Reduce portion sizeIncrease intake of fiber (why?)More fruits and veggiesMore whole grain productsLimit empty caloriesSoda, alcohol, candy…..
41Strategies for Weight Loss Drink plenty of waterEat a salad before dinnerLow calorie dressingBuy/make fixed size portionsAvoid buffets and family style servingReduce fat content of foods w.o increasing portion size
42Strategies for Weight Loss Avoid starving all day…..leads to bingingOthers????
43Extreme MeasuresExtreme weight loss measures may be called in cases of severe obesity (BMI >40)When health issues of weight are greater than the health issues associated with the treatment
44Extreme Measures Treatment is usually: Surgery to drastically reduce stomach size and to bypass some of the SILong-term success depends upon compliance with dietary restrictionsLifetime medical supervision is neededAt high risk of many vitamin and mineral deficienciesMedications
45Weight GainGoal is to add lean body mass (as well as body fat if extremely underweight)Exercise is an important component of weight gainWeight gain can be just as challenging as weight loss!
46Strategies for Weight Gain Chose energy dense foodsMay be higher fat choicesSomeone who is seriously underweight can afford a little more fatExamples:2% milk vs. skim milkPeanut butter on anythingSalmon vs. haddock
47Strategies for Weight Gain Eat regular mealsDo not call a “non-meal” a mealLettuce or carrots or an apple are not lunchLeave salad for lastIncrease portion sizeExtra meat or cheese on sandwichLarger bowl of cereal, add a banana
48Strategies for Weight Gain Snack between meals, but not too close to meals!Chose nutritionally /calorie dense snacksPeanut butter on apple or crackersBowl of cereal with milkTrail mix (seeds, nuts, raisins….)Slimfast or instant breakfastDrink caloric beveragesMilk, juice …..