Presentation on theme: "Mr. James, Theory of Knowledge"— Presentation transcript:
1Mr. James, Theory of Knowledge Language unit ReviewMr. James, Theory of Knowledge
2What is language? Language is … Rule governed Intended Creative Open-ended
3The Problem of Meaning Theories Definition Theory Denotation Theory Dictionary definition of the wordDenotation TheoryLiteral meaning of a word. Word was created to describe real- world object or concept. Example: Bird is the word for flying animal.Image TheoryThe mental image conjured when a word is produced. Each image varies from person to person. Example: Chocolate
4Meaning as Know-How Problematic Meaning: Meaning and Interpretation Robert Frost ( ) “We rarely say exactly what we mean for ‘we like to talk in parables and in hints and in indirections – whether from diffidence or some other instinct.’Meaning and InterpretationWe can summarize our discussion or problematic meaning in three words: language is ambiguous. The implication is that there is an element of interpretation built into communication. Although language is governed by rules, many of the rules are quite loose.
5Problematic Meaning Vagueness Ambiguity Secondary Meaning Metaphor Irony
6VaguenessWords such as fast and slow are intrinsically vague and their meaning depends on context.Fast means something different to a long- distance runner and a F1 driver.Vague words are still useful-they can’t “pin” things own, but can point us in the right direction.Example: How little hair must one have to be bald?
7AmbiguityMany words and phrases are ambiguous: “The Duchess cannot bear children” can have different meaningsAmbiguity can be amusing, but it can also mislead people. Politicians deliberately exploit ambiguous sentences so that they can be understood in different ways by different listeners…
8Example“I am opposed to taxes which damage incentives” could be taken to mean, “I am opposed to all taxes because they damage incentives,” or “I am opposed only to those taxes which damage incentives.”
9AmbiguityMany words and phrases are ambiguous: “The Duchess cannot bear children” can have different meaningsAmbiguity can be amusing, but it can also mislead people. Politicians deliberately exploit ambiguous sentences so that they can be understood in different ways by different listeners…Context can help us determine the meaning of an ambiguous sentence:“They saw Mrs. Jones and the dog sitting under the table.”
10Secondary MeaningConnotation. The denotation of a word is what it refers to, the connotation is the web of associations that surround it. While the denotation is generally publicly known, connotations vary from person to person.Euphemisms: Sometimes we use euphemisms for harsh words because they have more acceptable connotationsPassed away/died – passed away brings with it associations of peace and serenity
11MetaphorWe use language not only literally, but also metaphorically. You might say, “Mr. James has his head in the clouds” or “Ms. Mudren is a pillar of the community.” “Mr. Gronholm has deep roots in Chicago.”Despite these sentences being literally false, each of them may be metaphorically true.Ordinary language is riddle with “dead metaphors”, such as “nightfall” and “sharp tongue”. These phrases are so familiar that we have forgotten their metaphorical origin
12Irony Saying one thing in order to mean the opposite. “Nice weather, eh?” or “Any more bright ideas, Einstein?”Irony is found in all culturesIrony means that we cannot necessarily take a statement at face value.
13Meaning and Interpretation Why should we care about the meaning of words? Does it really matter if we cannot pin down the meaning of a word?In some cases it definitely does. What is the difference between “murder” and “manslaughter”If you want to have a “war on terrorism” you must be clear about what you mean by “terrorist.”Politicians manipulate the meaning of words: unemployment, taxes, death tax.Tricksters, Carnies, and Con-Men also exploit vague language
14Language and Translation Problems of TranslationContextThe meaning of a word in a language partly is partly determined by its relation to other wordsUntranslatable WordsEvery language contains words that have no equivalent in other languagesIdiomsColloquial expression whose meaning cannot be worked out from the meanings of the words it contains
16How would you translate… …barking up the wrong tree?…pulling your leg?…resting on your laurels?
17Labels and Stereotypes Short word or phrase descriptive of an object, person, group, etc. (golf clubs, IB students, gleeks)StereotypesA simplified conception or image of a person, group, etc., rooted in perceived attributes of the label of the person, group, etc.
18Language and Thought Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Linguistic Determinism: The idea that language and its structures limit and determine human knowledge or thought (we can’t see things another way)Linguistic Relativism: The idea that the language a person speaks influences that person’s cognition (learn a different language, see the world differently)
19Doctor StoryA father is driving in a car with his son. They get into an accident, the father is killed instantly, and the son is rushed to the hospital. The doctor comes in and says, “I cannot operate, this is my son.” How can this be?
20Language and Values Using Language to Influence and Persuade Emotionally laden languageWeasel Words