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LANGUAGE CHAPTER 3 REVIEW Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "LANGUAGE CHAPTER 3 REVIEW Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 LANGUAGE CHAPTER 3 REVIEW Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

2 Language has several important characteristics: It is symbolic. (Words) Why is human communication symbolic? Words are arbitrary and open to interpretation Meanings reside in the minds of people, not in words themselves. Understanding those rules helps us understand one another. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

3 Language can express ideas and be very powerful. It can shape our attitudes toward things and each other. It can reflect the way we feel about things and people. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

4 Some kinds of language can create problems by unnecessarily… disrupting relationships confusing others avoiding important information Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

5 Types of language rules: PHONOLOGICAL rules: How words sound. (lead vs. lead, a dump had to refuse refuse). SYNTACTIC rules: The structure of language. That each word contain a vowel. SEMANTIC rules: The meaning of words. PRAGMATIC rules: How people use words in everyday language. Shut-up Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

6 Gender plays an important role in the way language operates. Content of male/female speech varies. Men/women often have different reasons for communicating. Male/female conversational style varies. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

7 Cultural factors can shape the way we see and understand language. Different cultures have different notions of what language styles are and arent appropriate. Language we speak can shape view of the world. Words: Fresca---in Spanish slang in Mexico means Lesbian Pet condensed milk. In French means to break wind Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

8 High context cultures Value language as a way to maintain social harmony. Relational harmony is valued. Communicators refrain from saying no directly. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

9 Low context cultures (North American) Use language to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as clearly and logically as possible. Communicators state opinions and desires directly. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

10 Other factors that influence the way people speak…examples? The setting Expertise of the speakers Social roles (boss/employee) Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

11 Language can be a way of building and demonstrating solidarity with others When someone wants the approval of another person they may adapt their speech to suit the others style Trying to say the right thing Trying to fit in. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

12 What is equivocal language? Words with more than one correct definition. Possible outcomes? Equivocal misunderstandings can have serious consequences. Nurse: Won't be needing the materials. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

13 What are relative words? Large/small Fast/slow Short/long Compared to what? Mistake: To assume they have a clear meaning. Using relative words without explaining them can lead to communication problems. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

14 Facts and Opinions Fact?Opinion? Examples? Label opinions as opinions Label facts as facts Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

15 What is emotive language? Words that sound as if theyre describing something when they are really announcing the speaker's attitude toward something. Emotive words may sound like statements of fact but are always opinions. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

16 TEST EXAMPLES Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

17 A conclusion based on an interpretation of evidence is called a(an): a)Opinion b)Inference c)Connotation C INFERENCE Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

18 Which of the following is valued most highly in communication by women in all female talk? a)Humor b)New ways to solve problems c)Empathy d)Rapid pace C EMPATHY Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

19 Which of the following statements would researchers classify as being the most powerfully expressed? a)I guess I have a question b)Excuse me, but I have a question c)I think I have a question d)I have a question D I have a question Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

20 A language is a collection of symbols. a)True b)False Symbols make up language Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

21 In order to speak a language fluently, a speaker should be able to describe the rules that govern that language? a)True b)False FALSE Child. Most people cannot articulate the rules of language. Most rules are learned unconsciously. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

22 What is a euphemism? A pleasant term substituted for a more direct term. Examples: Bumpy air instead of turbulence Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

23 Inferences refer to things or acts we can observe directly. a.True b.False False This is a description of factual statements. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

24 Which of the following types of words gain their meanings by comparison? a. relative b. abstract c. equivocal d. emotive a. relative Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

25 A behavioral description describes behavior that is: a. observable b. abstract c. negative d. positive a. observable Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

26 The basic goals of almost all ordinary conversations vary strikingly, based on the sex of the communicators. a.True b.False False Both men and women share the same conversational goals, but they often go about achieving these goals in very different ways. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

27 Roger has reported to your study group that he plans to improve his study habits this semester. In fact, he said, "I will study two hours outside of class for each hour in class." His statement is an example of: a. abstract description b. emotive description c. syntactic description d. behavioral description Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

28 Language use can reflect the speaker's willingness to take responsibility for his/her statements. Which of the following categories of statements reflects the highest amount of speaker responsibility? a. I statements b. they statements c. you statements d. it statements a. I statements Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

29 Euphemisms are deliberately vague and can be interpreted in more than one way. a.True b.False False That describes an equivocation. Euphemism is a pleasant term substituted for a more direct but potentially less pleasant one. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

30 You are at the pizza restaurant ordering pizza with several friends. Suzanne says, "Don't order one with anchovies. Just hearing the word 'anchovies' about makes me sick!" Suzanne is responding to: a. equivocal meaning b. relative meaning c. emotive meaning d. fictional meaning c. emotive meaning Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

31 Human communication is symbolic. Why? a. A particular word means the same thing to any two people. b. Words are arbitrary and open to individual interpretation. c. There are logical reasons why certain words stand for certain ideas. d. We are emotionally connected to others. b. Words are arbitrary and open to individual interpretation. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.


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