Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 & 7. What is language? Language allows us to talk with others Language allows us to understand or disagree with others. Language allows us to."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6 & 7
What is language? Language allows us to talk with others Language allows us to understand or disagree with others. Language allows us to make plans, to remember the past, and to imagine future events.
Meaning-centeredness: Discourse meaning: denotative/connotative Communication meaning: goal behind the utterance. Relational meaning Situational meaning Conventional meaning
Discussion Question Connotative and denotative meanings: How do these two types of meanings are source for misunderstandings within our own culture? Where did you learn meanings for these terms? Which are the most negative-feeling word for you? Why? Which are the most positive-feeling word for you? What can you take from this exercise as you related to others for whom English is a second language?
Cognitive formation function Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (or linguistic relativity hypothesis) asserts that language is “the shaper of ideas”. Language helps to shape our thinking patterns.
Discussion questions Can you have a thought for which no words exist to depict it? Why or why not? Can you have an experience or emotion for which no words exist to depict it? Why or why not? If language helps to shape our reality, what might learning a new language do to our current views or reality?
Social change function of language Are there new words or an emphasis on existing words in English that serves to direct our attention to things important in U. S. social experiences? Example: orange alert had no meaning, but now our attention is drawn to this new reality. Complete Quick Poll 6.1.
Idioms Have you ever heard a person mix up an idiom? What was said? What was your reaction? How can flexible intercultural communicator approach a new language so as to try to avoid misunderstandings or misusing idioms? Complete activity on idioms
Intercultural low-context and high context framework Chapter 7
Defining contexts In low-context communication (LCC), the emphasis is on how intention or meaning is best expressed through explicit verbal messages. Communication patterns of direct verbal mode Speaker needs to construct clear, persuasive message that listeners can decode easily.
In high-context communication (HCC), the emphasis is on how intention and meaning can best be conveyed through the context and nonverbal channels. Communication patterns of indirect verbal mode. The receiver or interpreter of the message assumes responsibility to infer the hidden or contextual meanings of the message.
Example Low-context communication example: Speakers spell our everything that is on their minds with no restraints. High-context communication example: Speakers use indirect hints and nonverbal signals so as to preserve face and the relationship. Within US males tend to be more low context and females tend to be more high context. Complete Quick Poll 7.1. page 175
Comparison Direct vs. Indirect speaking style Complementary style, Animated conversational style and Understated conversational style. Informal verbal style vs. formal verbal style –English is an individual-centered language –Japanese is a status-oriented language
Discussion Compete quick poll 7.2. Share your answers in class. What misunderstandings can occur if a student from an informal verbal style and requests a favor from an instructor who comes from a formal verbal style? Imagine going to a new culture from our rather informal U.S. culture. What would you do to discover if this new culture is as informal as the U.S, or practices a greater level of formality?
Activity Each group will need six members for this activity. You will each receive a slip of paper from me. Read it and do not reveal information to others in the group. Now choose the any topic to discuss in your group for next 5 minutes. Begin the discussion. During the discussion act out according to the roles that are described on your sheet of paper.
Intercultural Persuasion Process Linear persuasion style relies on evidence, facts, eyewitness accounts ( U.S. follows this form). Spiral persuasion style ranges from dramatic to subtle. –Dramatic uses metaphors, stories, various adjectives ( Italian, Arab cultures follow this form) –Subtle style uses hints, analogies, Zen sayings and subtle nonverbal gestures to convey intended meaning ( Native American, Asian follow this form)
Question of the Week # 6 Based on this activity, are you low or high context communicator? Please explain and support your choice. If you are in between, in which instances are you more a low or high context communicator? How does this concept help you broaden your intercultural communication competence?